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HomePoems > Kubla Khan > Sources > F. Bernier >  1. Shalimar in Kashmir                

 

 

1. Shalimar in Kashmir

2. House of Pleasure of the Kings of Kashmir

3. Hermitage floating on the water

4. Impetuous fountain

5. Source of the Nile

F. Bernier

1. Shalimar in Kashmir

Bernier describes the Vale of Kashmir as full of rivers, green pleasure gardens, isles all green in the midst of water, and, at the garden of the king, great green turfs, and domes surrounded by water.

Lowes argues that these elements may have "risen up, blended and transfigured, in the lovely image of the dream," when Coleridge was writing Kubla Khan.

The garden of Shalimar, renowned now as the name of a perfume, certainly seemed romantic, and the imagery resembles that of Coleridge's Xanadu, where Kubla Khan decreed a pleasure dome, which floated midway on the waves, near a fountain flinging up a river, in a very green scene.

A few pages earlier, Bernier describes the Taj Mahal as a "great and vast dome of white marble," (VIII, 193), which may have reinforced the image of a dome, surrounded by fountains and shallow canals.

Text

Out of all these mountains do issue innumerable sources and rivulets…All these rivulets, descending from the mountains, make the plain and all those hillocks so fair and fruitful, that one would take this whole kingdom for some evergreen garden. The lake hath this peculiar, that 'tis full of little isles, which are as many gardens of pleasure, that appear all green in the midst of the water….Beyond the lake, upon the side of the hills, there is nothing but houses and gardens of pleasure…full of springs and rivulets. VIII, 228-9

The most admirable of all these gardens is that of the king, which is called Chah-limar. From the lake, one enters into it by a great canal, border'd with great green turfs….It leadeth to a great cabinet in the midst of the garden, where begins another canal far more magnificent…and in the midst of it there is a long row of jets of water….And this canal ends at another great cabinet.

These cabinets, which are in a manner made like domes, (are) situate in the middle of canal, and encompassed with water. VIII, 233

Other sources

William Bartram
William Beckford
James Bruce
Thomas Burnet
William Collins
Herodotus
Athanasius Kircher
Jerome Lobo
Thomas Maurice
John Milton
Pausanias
Samuel Purchas
Major James Rennell
Seneca
Strabo
Virgil

Mary Wollstonecraft

 

 
Word Line # Line Sources for word
Amid 20 Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst  Bernier 1
 Bernier 3
 Bruce 1
 Bruce 2
 Herodotus
 Milton 4
 Purchas 1
 Purchas 2
 Wollstonecraft
Dome

2

A stately pleasure-dome decree:

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Maurice 3
 Purchas 1
 Strabo 2

 

31

The shadow of the dome of pleasure

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Maurice 3
 Purchas 1
 Strabo 2

 

36

A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Maurice 3
 Purchas 1
 Strabo 2

 

46

I would build that dome in air,

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Maurice 3
 Purchas 1
 Strabo 2

 

47

That sunny dome! Those caves of ice!

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Maurice 3
 Purchas 1
 Strabo 2

 

Gardens

8

And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills

 Bartram 2
 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Bernier 3
 Milton 4
 Milton 6
 Purchas 3
 Purchas 4
 Rennell

Green

13

Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover

 Bartram 1
 Bartram 3
 Bartram 4
 Bernier 1
 Bruce 2
 Milton 1

Greenery

11

Enfolding sunny spots of greenery

 Bartram 1
 Bartram 3
 Bartram 4
 Bernier 1
 Bruce 2
 Milton 1

Hill

13

Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover

 Beckford
 Bernier 1
 Bruce 1
 Bruce 2
 Bruce 7

 Bruce 9

 Milton 3
 Milton 4

 Purchas 5

Hills

10

And here were forests ancient as the hills

 Bernier 1
 Bruce 1
 Bruce 2
 Bruce 7

 Bruce 9

 Milton 3
 Milton 4

 Purchas 5

Long 45 That with music loud and long  Bartram 3
 Bernier 1
 Bruce 8
Mid 23    Bernier 1
 Bernier 3
 Bruce 1
 Bruce 2
 Herodotus
 Milton 4
 Purchas 1
 Purchas 2
 Wollstonecraft
  29   Bernier 1
Bernier 3
Bruce 1
Bruce 2
Herodotus
Milton 4
Purchas 1
Purchas 2
Wollstonecraft
Midway 32 Floated midway on the waves Bernier 1
Bernier 3
Bruce 1
Bruce 2
Herodotus
Milton 4
Purchas 1
Purchas 2
Wollstonecraft
Pleasure

2

A stately pleasure-dome decree

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Purchas 1
 Purchas 3
 Purchas 4

 

31

The shadow of the dome of pleasure

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Purchas 1
 Purchas 3
 Purchas 4

 

36

A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!

 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Purchas 1
 Purchas 3
 Purchas 4

River

3

Where Alph, the sacred river, ran

 Bartram 3
 Bartram 6
 Beckford
 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Bernier 3
 Bernier 5

 Bruce 2

 Bruce 4
 Bruce 6

 Burnet 1
 Kircher 1
 Kircher 3
 Maurice 1
 Milton 4
 Pausanias
 Rennell
 Seneca 1
 Strabo 1
 Strabo 2

 Virgil

 

24

It flung up momently the sacred river

 Bartram 3
 Bartram 6
 Beckford
 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Bernier 3
 Bernier 5

 Bruce 2

 Bruce 4
 Bruce 6

 Burnet 1
 Kircher 1
 Kircher 3
 Maurice 1
 Milton 4
 Pausanias
 Rennell
 Seneca 1
 Strabo 1
 Strabo 2

 Virgil

 

26

Through wood and dale the sacred river ran

 Bartram 3
 Bartram 6
 Beckford
 Bernier 1
 Bernier 2
 Bernier 3
 Bernier 5

 Bruce 2

 Bruce 4
 Bruce 6

 Burnet 1
 Kircher 1
 Kircher 3
 Maurice 1
 Milton 4
 Pausanias
 Rennell
 Seneca 1
 Strabo 1
 Strabo 2

 Virgil

 

 

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