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3d. Provide depth and breadth through plentiful links within your site.
Kubla Khan and Manchuria
Bandits in Manchuria
Japanese Invade Manchuria (1931)
In the last fiscal year, the Nuclear Weapons Lab has pioneered:
A Manager’s Checklist
A Technician’s Checklist
A Designer’s Checklist
Other ways to make links hot
Resources on writing links
Offer examples to define concepts. But watch out for
examples that raise other issues, or make too many points at once.
… Get users to relate ideas to their knowledge and personal
interest via scenarios. … Case studies help the user
form a complete picture of the system and how it operates.
Use links to offer more information. ... "If you just want to read the page you’re on, fine; you’re not losing anything. But if you want to follow the links, you can. That’s the great thing about the Web."—Nielsen & Morkes (1997)
Provide "context" links to satisfy a range of audience needs.—Levine (1997)
On long pages, include internal links.—Apple (1999)
You may not wish to cater specially for those who jump in out of the blue, but it is wise to leave them with enough clues so as not to be hopelessly lost. —Berners-Lee (1998)
Having both a short summary and full detail saves writing time. It is often much easier for the writer to write a short summary of the details, and then insert the details as raw data, than to try to make a more comprehensive summary…The writer would not be forced to guess how much to cover and err on the side of providing too little information (cheating the reader) or too much (wasting the writer and reader’s time). …The combination of concise summaries and great detail is one of the ways that a web document can be much better than a paper document. —Bricklin (1998)
The evidence is strong that breadth should be preferred over depth. —Shneiderman (1998)
Long and detailed background information can be relegated to secondary pages; similarly, information of interest to a minority of readers can be made available through a link without penalizing those readers who don’t want it.
But hypertext should not be used to segment a long linear story into multiple pages.—Nielsen (1999f)
Your audience will judge the utility of a site partly on whether it has the right amount of information to suit their needs. Your site should have enough breadth to be relevant to more than a niche audience. However, if the subject matter is too broad, the goal of the site may be unclear. Links, archives, or search engines can provide a balance between providing valuable content depth/breadth and providing so much information that your site is hard to use or understand. —Microsoft (2000)
Think of linking as the quickest means to get the user to the most relevant information. Whenever possible, state conclusions and link to supporting details; enumerate categories and link to lists; summarize and link to full-length treatments. —Sun (2000)
Users rarely land directly at the desired page, especially when using a search engine. But they often get close. Close, but no cigar, as far as most sites are concerned, since it is rare to find links to similar or related pages. —Nielsen (2000a)
Supplement the primary links of a Web site with secondary links—when appropriate. Key points:
See bibliography: Ameritech (1997), Apple (1999), Berners-Lee (1998), Bricklin (1998), Farkas and Farkas (2000), Gagne & Briggs (1979), Horton (1990), Levine (1997), Microsoft (2000), Nielsen & Morkes (1997), Nielsen (1999f, 2000a), Reigeluth et al (1980), Robinson & Knirk (1984), Shneiderman (1998), Sun (2000)
How do you discover the business rules that apply in your organization? By gathering requirements. You have to identify actors, objects, and use cases, then construct an abstract business model, which forms the conceptual basis for the architectural model. As Alan Pope says, "A business rule is an explanation of what the business is doing and why they are doing it. It should not have the burden of how they are doing it. The what of the business is the view of the business as seen by an immediate customer. An immediate customer may be internal or external to the organization. The why is the logic that drives that what."
How do you discover the business rules that apply in your organization? By gathering requirements.
You have to identify actors, objects, and use cases, then construct an abstract business model, which forms the conceptual basis for the architectural model.
The work we have done with Ubermann shows a case study of the development of these models.
As Alan Pope says, "A business rule is an explanation of what the business is doing and why they are doing it."
Pope concludes: "The what of the business is the view of the business as seen by an immediate customer. An immediate customer may be internal or external to the organization. The why is the logic that drives that what."
How it Works (A Scenario)
We have organized our electronic library catalog around authors, titles, and subjects-just like the card catalogs of old. To find one or more books, here's what you do.
1. You choose a category, such as author, words in a title, exact title, or subject, by clicking one of the items offered in the Category List.
In a moment you see a new screen, asking for a little additional detail about the kind of books you are after.
2. In the Detail screen, you type in the text that you hope will lead you to the books you are after.
3. You click the giant red Search button.
If you are lucky, you get a list of authors, title, or subjects that might be relevant like that in our Sample Results. If you aren't so lucky, you're told that the catalog doesn't have anything with that text as part of an author's name, title, or subject. So you have to try again.
Wondering where to start?
Here are some examples of the way you might use our genealogy information.
Case Study: Using our Photo Exchange
Geraldine took some wonderful pictures on her vacation, and brought them to her local photo shop for development. They told her that if she wanted, she could have her pictures posted on the World Wide Web in our Photo Exchange, as well as having prints made on paper.
Geraldine agreed. In one week, she had her prints in hand, and the pictures were up on the Web. She emailed everyone with one picture, and the address of her site on Photo Exchange. Her family got to see the whole tour, including tourist sites, their car, and their motels. Her Mom said it was like a slide show at her own pace.
Pioneering Nuclear Weapons
In the last fiscal year, the Nuclear Weapons Lab has pioneered:
Writing that Works!