Web Writing That Works!

           A Project of
           The Communication Circle

Guidelines Rants Patterns Poems Services Classes Press Blog Resources About Us Site Map

HomeResources  > Bibliography                 



Here's a list of articles, web pages, and books that we have found useful when figuring out how to write for the web.

If you have additional items you think people would like to know about, let us know, with as full a citation as possible.

And if one of the links is broken, let us know. (Already, some of these links have been deleted by their makers, as we note.)



Abeleto.com. 1999. How to write usefully for the Web. http://www.abeleto.com/resources/tutorials/webwriting.html

Agre, P. E., and M. Rotenberg (eds). 1997. Technology and Privacy: The New Landscape. Cambridge, MA: MIT

Albrecht, J., and E. O’Brien. 1993. Updating a mental model: Maintaining both local and global coherence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19. 1061-1070.

Allen, C., D. Kania, and B. Yaeckel. 2001. One-to-One Web Marketing: Build a Relationship Marketing Strategy One Customer at a Time. New York: Wiley.

Alred, Gerald J., Oliu, Walter E., and Brusaw, Charles T. 1992. The Professional Writer. New York: St Martin’s Press.

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). 2000. Do You Know Where Your Data Is? http://www.aclu.org/action/privcard.html

American Express. 1998. Customer Privacy Principles. http://home3.americanexpress.com/corp/action/privcard.html

America Online Webmaster Info. January, 2001.
http://webmaster.info.aol.com/webstyle. (Page deleted).

Ameritech Web Page User Interface and Design Guidelines. 1998. http://www.ameritech.com/news/testown/library/standard/
web_guidelines (Page removed).

Ames, Andrea. 2000. Architecture and Design of Online Information for Information-Rich User Interfaces and User Assistance. San Jose, CA: university of California, Santa Cruz. http://www.verbal-imagery.com/architecture.htm

Andrews, P. 2001. Who are your gatekeepers? Paul Andrews' Hypodermia. http://www.paulandrews.com/stories/storyReader$122

Apple Computer. 1987. Human Interface Guidelines: The Apple Desktop Interface. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Apple Computer. 1999. Apple Web Design Guide. http://www.apple.com/ (Removed from public site).

Arthur, Lance. 2000. Design. http://glassdog.com/design-o-rama/design/index.html

Asher, S. R. 1980. Topic interest and children’s reading comprehension. Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension, R. J. Spiro, B. C. Bruce, and W. F. Brewer, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 525-534.

Ausubel, D. D. 1968. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Ausubel, D. D. 1978. In defense of advance organizers: A reply to the critics. Review of Educational Research, 48, 2. 251-257.


Bailey, R. W. 1983. Human Performance Engineering: A Guide for System Designers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Baker, J. D. and Goldstein, I. 1966. Batch vs Sequential displays: Effects on human problem solving. Human Factors, 8: 225-235.

Bakhtin, M. M. 1986. Speech Genres and Other Essays. Trans. V. McGee, edited by M. Holquist and C. Emerson. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.

Baldwin, R.S., Z. Peleg-Bruckner, and A. McClintock. 1985. Effects of topic interest and prior knowledge on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly 220, Number 4. 497-504.

Bank One. 2001. Privacy Policy. http://www.bankone.com

Barstow, Thomas R., and Jaynes, Joseph T. 1986. Integrating online documentation into the technical publishing process. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, PC-29, 4: 37-41.

BBC. 2003. The BBC News Styleguide. http://learn.gateway.bbc.co.uk/documents/pdf/newstyleguide.pdf

Belew, R. K. 2000. Finding out About: A Cognitive Perspective on Search Engine Technology and the WWW.  Cambridge, UK: Cambride University Press.

Berners-Lee, Tim. 1992-1998. Style Guide for Online Hypertext. http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/All.html

Beyer, H. and Holtzblatt, K.  1997.  Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems.  San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Bieber, Michael, Fabio Vitali, Helen Ashman, V. Balasubramianian, and Harri Oinas-Kukkonen. 1997. Fourth generation hypermnedia: Some missing links for the World Wide Web. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 47, Number 1. 31-66. http://ijhcs.open.ac.uk/bieber/bieber.html

Black, Roger, & Elder, Sean. 1997. Web Sites That Work. San Jose, CA: Adobe.

Boggan, S., D. Farkas, and J. Welinske. 1996. Developing Online Help for Windows 95.  Boston, MA: Thomson.

Bolter, J. D. 1991. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Boomer, H.R. 1975. Relative comprehensibility of pictorial information and printed words in proceduralized instructions. Human Factors. 17, 3. 266-267.

Borenstein, Nathaniel S. 1985. Help texts vs Help mechanisms: A new mandate for documentation writers. In Proceedings of SIGDOC ’85. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. 8-10.

Borges, Jose A. Israel Morales, and Nestor J. Rodriguez. 1998. Page design guidelines developed throughusability testing. In Human Factors and Web Development, ed. Chris Forsythe, Eric Grose, and Julie Ratner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 137-152

Bork, Alfred. 1983. A preliminary taxonomy of ways of displaying text on screens. Information Design Journal, 3, 3. 206-214.

Bradley, N. 2000. The XSL Companion. Harlow, England: Pearson, Addison-Wesley.

Branscum, D. March 5, 2001. Who's blogging now? Newsweek. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/535681.asp

Bransford, John D., and Merieta K. Johnson. 1972. Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11. 717-726.

Bricklin, Dan. 1996-1998. Good Documents.

Broadbent, D. E. 1978. Language and ergonomics. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. PC-21: 34-37.

Brown, Geoffrey Vail. 2000. Intelliforum: Intro to the Action Point Theory. http://www.intelliforum.com/theory/actionintro.htm (Dead). Summary at:http://www.zebedeecreations.co.uk/useful_hints_detail.asp?

Bruffee, K. A. 1986. Social construction, language, and the authority of knowledge.  A bibliographical essay.  College English 48: 773-790.

Brusaw, Charles T., Alred, Gerald J, and Oliu, Walter E. 1997. Handbook of Technical Writing, Fifth Edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Burgess, J. H. 1984. Human Factors in Form Design. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Burke, K. 1969. A Rhetoric of Motives.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Bush, Donald W., and Campbell, Charles P. 1995. How to Edit Technical Documents. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx

Bushell, C.B. 1995. Design Requirements for Hypermedia. Master’s Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


Carroll, J. M. 1984. Minimalist training. Datamation, 30, 18. 125-136.

Celsi, R. and J. Olson. 1989. The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes. Journal of Consumer Research 15, Number 2. 210-224.

Chase, W.G., and Clark, H.H. 1972. Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (Ed.) Cognition in Learning and Memory. New York: Wiley.

Cheskin Research and Studio Archetype/Sapient. 1999. eCommerce Trust Study.

Clark, H. H. and Clark, E. V. 1968. Semantic distinctions and memory for complex sentences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20. 129-138.

Clark, G. 1990.  Dialogue, Dialectic, and Conversation: A Social Perspective on the Function of Writing.  Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP.

Clark, H.H., and Chase, W.G.  1970. On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3. 472-517.

Clark, H. H., and S. E. Haviland. 1977. Comprehension and the given-new contract. In Discourse Production and Comprehension, R. O. Freedle, ed. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1-40.

Coad, P. and E. Yourdon. 1991. Object-Oriented Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Cohen, J. May 17, 2001. He-Mails, She-Mails: Where sender meets gender.  New York Times.

Conklin, Jeff. 1987a. Hypertext: An introduction and survey. IEEE Computer, 20: 9. 17-41.

Conklin, Jeff. 1987b. STP-356-86, Rev. 2 A Survey of Hypertext. Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation.

Coombs, J. H. A. H. Renear, and S. J. DeRose. 1987. Markup systems and the future of scholarly text processing. Communications of the ACM, 30, 933-47. 1987. Reprinted in G. P. Landow and P. Delany (eds.) The Digital Word, Text-based Computing in the Humanities (85-118). Cambridge, MA: MIT. 1993.

Cooper, Alan. 1995. About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design. Indianapolis, IN: IDG.

Cooper, Alan. 1999. The Inmates are Running the Asylum: Why High-Tech Products Drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity. Indianapolis, IN: Sams.

Creaghead, N. A., and K. G. Donnelly. 1982. Comprehension of superordinate and subordinate information by good and poor readers. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools 13. 177-186.

Cuff, R. N. 1980. On casual users. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. 12, 2. 163-187.


Dack.com. 2001. Best Practices for Designing Shopping Cart and Checkout Interfaces. http://www.dack.com/web/shopping_cart_Print.html

Davenport, T. 1993, Process Innovation, Reengineering Work through Information Technology.  Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.

Davies, S. 2001. Time for a byte of privacy, please. Privacy International. http://www.oneworld.org/index_oc/issue697/davies.html

Dee-Lucas, D. and J. Larkin. 1990. Organization and comprehensibility in scientific proofs, or ‘consider a particle p… Journal of Educational Psychology 82, Number 4. 701-714.

Dee-Lucas, D. 1995. Study strategies for instructional hypertext: Effects of text segmentation and task opportunity. Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Reprinted in ED-MEDIA 95 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Proceedings. Charlottesville, VA: Association for Advancement of Computer Education. 175-186.

Deese, J. and R. A. Kaufman. 1957. Serial effects in recall of unorganized and sequentially organized verbal material. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54. 180-187.

Dewer, R. E. 1976. The slash obscures the symbol on prohibitive traffic signs. Human Factors, 18, 3. 253-258.

Dillon, Andrew. 1994. Designing Usable Electronic Text: Ergonomic Aspects of Human Information Usage. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Doherty, M. 2001. @TITLE THIS-CHAPTER AS ... [WAS; ON THE WEB, NOBODY KNOWS YOU'RE AN EDITOR] in J. F. Barber and D. Grigar (eds.) New Worlds, New Words: Exploring Pathways for Writing aobut and in Electronic Environments.  Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Dragga, S. and G. Gong.  1989.  Editing: The Design of Rhetoric.  Amityville, New York: Baywood.

Duffy, T. M. J. E. Palmer, and B. Mehlenbacher.  1992.  Online Help Design and Evaluation. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Dumas, Joseph. 1988. Designing User Interfaces for Software. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Dumas, Joseph and Jenny C. Redish. 1993. A Practical Guide to Usability Testing. Greenwich, CT: Ablex.


Ellinor, L., and G. Gerard. 1998. Dialogue: Rediscover the Transforming Power of Conversation. New York: Wiley.

El-Shinnawy, Maha. 1998. Interface: Susan T. Kinney and Richard T. Watson on ‘The effect of medium and task on dyadic communication." IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 41, 2, June. 140-142.

Esperet, E. 1996. Notes on hypertext, cognition, and language. In Hypertext and Cognition, J. F. Rouet, J. J. Levonen, A. Dillon, and R. J. Spiro, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 149-155.


Farkas, David K. and Jean B. Farkas. 2000. Guidelines for Designing Web Navigation. Technical Communication, Volume 47, Number 3, pp. 341-358

Federal Trade Commission, U.S. 1999. How to Comply With The Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/buspubs/coppa.htm

Fish, S. 1980.  Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

Flower, L., J. R. Hayes, and H. Swarts. 1983. Revising functional documents: The scenario principle. In New Essays in Technical and Scientific Communication: Research, Theory, Practice, P. V. Anderson, R. J. Brockmann, and C. R. Miller, eds. Farmingdale, NY: Baywood. 41-58.

Flynn, N. 2001. The ePolicy Handbook. New York: American Management Association.

Forsythe, Chris, Eric Grose, and Julie Ratner, eds. 1998. Human Factors and Web Development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Foucault, M. 1972. The Archeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language.  Trans. A. M. S. Smith. New York: Pantheon-Random.

Fowler, Susan L, and Stanwick, Victor R. 1995. The GUI Style Guide. Boston: AP Professional.

Frase, L. T. 1969. Paragraph organization of written materials: The influence of conceptual clustering upon the level and organization of recall. Journal of Educational Psychology 60, Number 5, Part 1. 394-401.

Freebody, P. and R. C. Anderson. 1986. Serial position and rated importance in the recall of text. Discourse Processes 9, Number 1. 31036.

Freed, R. C. and G. J. Broadhead. 1987. Discourse communities, sacred texts, and institutional norms.  College Composition and Communication 38, 154-165.

Frisse, Mark. 1988a. From text to hypertext. Byte (October). 247-253.

Frisse, Mark. 1988b. Searching for information in a hypertext medical handbook. Communications of the ACM, 31, 7. 880-886.

Furnas, George W. 1997. Effective view navigation. Proceedings of CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems. Atlanta, GA: ACM Press, 367-374.


Gable Group. 2001. Stories not getting through? You could be trapped in a media bozo/jargon filter. http://www.jargonfreeweb.com/newstory.html

Gagne, R., and Briggs, L. 1979. Principles of Instructional Design. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Gamma, E., R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 1995.

Galitz, Wilbert O. 1985. Handbook of Screen Format Design. Wellesley, MA: QED Information Sciences.

Gaylin, K. 1986. How are windows used? Some notes on creating an empirically based windowing benchmark test. In CHI ’86 Proceedings. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. 96-100.

Gee, N. R., D.L. Nelson, and D. Krawczyk. 1999. Is the concreteness effect a result of underlying network interconnectivity? Journal of Memory and Language, Numnber 40. 479-497.

Gilbert, J. 2001. Privacy? Who needs privacy? Business 2.0, January 23. 42.

Gillmor, D. 2/20/2001. The whys and hows of Weblogs.  eJournal: Dan Gillmor's News and Views. http://web.siliconvalley.com/content/sv/2001/02/20/opinion/dgillmor/weblog/GillmorWeblogExplainer.htm

Givens, B. 2000. Privacy expectations in a high tech world. San Diego, CA: Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm

Glass, Robert L. 1989. Software maintenance documentation. Sigdoc 89 Conference Proceedings. New York: ACM.

Goldberg, A. and K. S. Rubin. 1995. Succeeding with Objects: Frameworks for Project Management. Reading, NMA: Addison-Wesley.

Goldfarb, Charles. 1990. The SGML Handbook. New York: Oxford.

Goldfarb, C. F., and Prescod, P. 2000. The XML Handbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Golledge, R. G. 1999. Human wayfinding and cognitive maps.  In Golledge, R. G. (ed.), Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes.  Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Gould, Emilie W., Gurevich, Mark, and Pagerey, Peter D. 1998.Conducting surveys over the World Wide Web. STC 45th Annual Conference 1998 Proceedings. Arlington, VA: Society for Technical Communication. 294-297.

Gregory, R. L. 1980. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. New York: Oxford.

Gregory, R.L. 1987. The Oxford Companion to the Mind. New York: Oxford.

Gutzman, A. D. 2001. The e-Commerce Arsenal. New York: American Management Association.


Haas, C. 1989a. Does the medium make a difference? A study of composing with pen and paper and with a computer.  Human-Computer Interaction. 4. 149-169.

Haas, C. 1989b. How the writing meidum shapes the writing process: Effects of word processing on planning.  Research in the Teaching of English.  23. 181-207.

Haas, C. 1996. Writing Technology: Studies on the Materiality of Literacy.  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Haas, C., and J. R. Hayes. 1986. Pen and Paper vs the Machine: Writers Composing in Hard Copy and Computer Conditions.  CDC Technical Report 16. Pittsburgh, PA: Communication Design Center, Carnegie Mellon University.

Hackos, JoAnn.  1995. Finding out what users need and giving it to them: A case study at Federal Express.  Technical Communication, 42 (2) 322-327.

Hackos, JoAnn. 2002. Content Management for Dynamic Web Delivery.  New York: Wiley.

Hackos, JoAnn, and J. C. Redish. 1998. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. New York: Wiley.

Hackos, JoAnn, and Stevens, Dawn M. 1996. Standards for Online Communication. New York: Wiley.

Hagen, P., with H. Manning and R. Souza. 1999. Smart Personalization.  Cambridge, MA: Forrester Research.

Hagen, P., and D. M. Cooperstein. January 3, 2001. Demand Chain Redefines Personalization and CRM. Forrester Research.

Hansell, S. March 26, 2001. Marketers find new avenues on the Internet.  New York Times.

Harnack, A. and E. Kleppinger. 1997. Online!  New York: St. Martins.

Hartley, J., and M. Trueman. 1983. The effects of headings in text on recall, search, and retrieval. British Journal of Educational Psychology 53. 205-214.

Hartman, D. B., and K. S. Nantz. 1996. The 3 Rs of E-Mail: Risks, Rights, and Responsibilities. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications.

Hasslein, Vaughn. 1986. Marketing survey on user requests for online documentation. In Proceedings of 33rd International Technical Communication Conference. Washington, DC: Society for Technical Communication. 434-438.

Heckel, Paul. 1984. The Elements of Friendly Software Design. New York: Warner.

Heim, M. 1987. Electric Language: A Philosophical Study of Word Processing. New Haven, CT: Yale.

Henning, K. 2000a.  Writing well online: Talent isn't enough. http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.2948.html

Henning, K. 2000b.  The seven qualities of highly successful Web writing.  http://www.clickz.com/cgi-bin/gt/article.html?article-2997

Henning, K. 2001a.  Clarity by design.  http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3131.html

Henning, K. 2001b. Fruit flies like a banana: Writing unambiguously. http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3234.html

Henning, K. 2001c. Writing for readers who scan. http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3326.html

Henning, K. 2001d.  Online, consistency is crucial.  http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3413.html

Henning, K. 2001e.  Writing consistently across media: Ten proofreading tips. http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3494.html

Henning, K.  2001f. Wireless: Good news for writers who write tight.  http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3598.html

Herring, S. 1996. Posting in a different voice: Gender and Ethics in CMC. In Philosophical Perspectives on Computer-Mediated Communication, edited by C. Ess. 115-146. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Herriot, P. 1970. An Introduction to the Psychology of Language. London: Methuen.

Herwijnen, E. 1990. Practical SGML.  Dordrecht/Boston: Kluwer.

Hix, Deborah, and Hartson, H. Rex. 1993. Developing User Interfaces: Ensuring Usability through Product and Process. New York: Wiley.

Hoffman, Michael. 1996. Enabling Extremely Rapid Navigation in Your Web or Document.  http://www.hypertextnavigation.com/infoaxcs.htm

Holcomb, P.J., J. Kounios, J. E. Anderson, and W.C. West. 1999. Dual-coding , context-availability, and concreteness effects in sentence comprehension: An electrophysiological investigation. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 25, Number 3. 721-742.

Holzner, S. 1998. XML Complete. New York: McGraw Hill.

Horton, William K. 1990. Designing and Writing Online Documentation: Help Files to Hypertext. New York: Wiley.

Hudson, P.T. and M. W. Bergman. 1985. Lexical knowledge and word recognition: Word length and word frequency in naming and decision tasks. Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 24, Number 1. 46-58.

Hunter, D., with C. Cagle, D. Gibbons, N. Ozu, J. Pinnock, P. Spencer. 2000. Beginning XML. Birmingham, UK: Wrox.


IBM Ease of Use (Dong, J., Kieke, E., Martin, S., Tilson, R.). 1997-1999. Web Design Guidelines

Isakson, C.S., and J. H. Spyridakis. 1999. The influence of semantics and syntax on what readers remember. Technical Communication 46, Number 3. 366-381.

J Jacobs, P. 2001. Personalization delivers for B2B. eDirections, 22-25, Winter.

Jacobsen, I., M. Ericcsson, and A. Jacobson.  1994.  The Object Advantage: Business Process Re-Engineering with Object Technology.  Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

James, W. 1890/1950. The Principles of Psychology.  New York: Dover.

James, W. 1925.  The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Longmans, Green.

Johnson, N., and S. Phillips.  2001. Legal Research Exercises Following the Bluebook. 7th Edition. Eagan, MN: West Wadsworth.

Johnson, S. 1997. Interface Culture: How New Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate. New York: HarperCollins.

Johnson-Eilola, J. 1994. Reading and writing in hypertext: Vertigo and euphoria. In C. L. Selfe and S. Hilligoss (eds.) Literacy and Computers: The Complications of Teaching and Learning with Technology. pp. 195-219. New York: Modern Language Association.

Jonassen, D. H, W. H. Hannum, and M. Tessmer. 1989. Handbook of Task Analysis Procedures.  New York: Praeger.

Joyce, M. 1988. Siren shapes: Exploratory and constructive hypertexts. Academic Computing. November. 10-15.

Just, M. A. and P. A. Carpenter. 1980. A theory of reading: From eye fixation to comprehension. Psychological Review 84, Number 4. 329-354.


Kaiser, Jean. 2000. Web Design/HTML. About. (Now handled by Jennifer Kyrnin). http://webdesign.about.com/library/weekly/mpreviss.htm

Kay, M. 2000. The XSLT Programmer's Reference.  Birmingham, UK: Wrox.

Keeker, Kevin. 1997. Improving Web site usability and appeal. http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnsiteplan/html/improvingsiteusa.asp

Kemp, T. May 31, 2001. Personalization isn't a product. Internet Week. http://www.internetweek.com/newslead01/lead060101.htm.

Khoshafian, S. and R. Abnous. 1995. Object Orientation. New York: Wiley.

Kieras, D. 1978. Good and bad structure in simple paragraphs: Effects on apparent theme, reading time and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17. 13-28.

Kieras, J. L. 1980. Initial mention as a signal to thematic content in technical passages. Memory and Cognition, 8, 4. 345-353.

Kilian, Crawford. 1999. Writing for the Web. North Vancouver, BC: Self-Counsel Press.

Kilian, Crawford. January 2, 2001. Good Web Writing: Small Latin and Less Geek. Content Exchange

Kintsch, W. 1993. Text comprehension, memory, and learning. American Psychologist 49, Number 4. 294-303.

Kirsner, Scott. 1997. Community Theater: Can corporate players be convincing—or successful—in the communitarian role? CIO Magazine, December 1, 1997. http://www.cio.com/archive/webbusiness/120197_main.html

Knowledge Capital Group. March 26, 2001. Customer-Relationship Management.  White paper.  New York Times (insert).

Kollock, Peter, and Smith, Marc. 1994. Managing the virtual commons: Cooperation and conflict in computer communities.

Kolln, Martha. 2003. Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects. New York: Longman.

Korenman, J. 1999. E-mail Forums and Women's Studies: The Example of WMST-L. In Hawthorne, S., and R. Klein, eds. CyberFeminism: Connectivity, Critique, and Creativity.  Australia: Spinifex Press. 80-97.

Kravetz, S. September 20, 2000. If that's me in the e-dressing room, why doesn't this fit?  New York Times, p. 22.

Krug, Steve. 2000. Don’t Make Me Think. Indianapolis, IN: Que. Excerpts at: http://www.sensible.com/


Lanham, R. 1993. The Electronic Word: Democracy,. Technology, and the Arts.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lanham, R. 1994. The economics of attention. Proceedings of 124th Annual Meeting Association of Research Librarians. Austin, Texas. http://sunsite.Berkeley.edu/ARL/Proceedings/124/ps2econ.html

Larkin, W., and D. Burns. 1977. Sentence comprehension and memory for embedded structure. Memory and Cognition 5, Number 1. 17-22.

Larson, Kevin and Mary Czerwinski. 1998. Web Page Design: Implications of Memory, Structure, and Scent for Information Retrieval. Microsoft Research. http://www.research.Microsoft.com/users/marycz/chi981.htm

Lasica, J.D. 2001a. Blogging as a form of journalism. USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review. http://ojr.usc.edu/content

Lasica, J.D. 2001b. Weblogs: A new source of news. USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review. http://ojr.usc.edu/content

Lawless, K. A., and J. M. Kulikowich. 1996. Understanding hypertext navigation through cluster analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research 14, Number 4. 385-399.

Lee, G. 1993. Object-Oriented GUI Application Development.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Levine, Rick. 1997. Sun Guide to Web Style. http://www.sun.com/styleguide [No longer available from Sun. Copy at

Levine, Rick, Christopher Locke, Doc Searles, David Weinberger. 1999. The Cluetrain Manifesto. http://www.cluetrain.com

Lie, H. W., and R. Bos. 1999. Cascading Style Sheets: Designing for the Web. Harlow, England: Pearson/Addison-Wesley.

LLoyd-Martin, H. and J. Whalen.  2001. Rank Write Roundtable.  RankWrite@RankWrite.com. Or http://www.rankwrite.com

Locke, C. 2001. Gonzo Marketing: Winning through Worst Practices. Reading, MA: Perseus.

Lohse, G. L, and P. Spiller. 1998. Quantifying the effect of user interface design features on cyberstore traffic and sales. CHI ’98 Conference Proceedings (Los Angeles, CA). Los Alamitos, CA: ACM Press.

Lorch, R., and E. Lorch. 1985. Topic structure representation and text recall. Journal of Educational Psychology 77, Number 2. 137-148.

Lorch, R. F., Jr. and E. P. Lorch. 1995. Effects of organizational signals on text-processing strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology 87, Number 4. 537-544.

Lovelace, E.A. and Southall, S.D. 1983. Memory for words in prose and their locations on the page. Memory and Cognition 11(5). 429-434.

Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lynch, Patrick, and Horton, Sarah. 1999. Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide. http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/manual

Lynch, Patrick. Visual Logic. 2000. (Journal, now removed from web. Substitute: http://www.webstyleguide.com/type/structure.html


MacEachren, A.M. 1992. Application of environmental learning theory to spatial knowledge acquisition from maps.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82 (2), 245-274.

MacEachren, A. M. 1995. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design.  New York: Guilford.

MacKinnon, Richard. 1992. Searching for the Leviathan in the Usenet. Masters Thesis, San Jose State University.

Mahler, William J. 1987. Interactive touch screen design. In Proceedings of the 34th International Technical Communication Conference. Washington, DC: Society for Technical Communication. VC 72-77.

Mandel, Theo. 1994. The GUI-OOUI War, Windows vs OS/2, The Designer’s Guide to Human-Computer Interfaces. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Mandel, Theo. 1997. The Elements of User Interface Design. New York: Wiley.

Manjoo, F. 2001. Spam spam spam spam spam. Wired News. http://www.wired.com/news/ebiz/0,1272,44095,00.html?tw=wn20010525

Marschark , M. and A. Paivio. 1977. Integrative processing of concrete and abstract sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16, 217-231.

Martin, D., with M. Birbeck; M. Kay; B. Loesgen; J. Pinnock, S. Livingston; P. Stark, K. Williams; R. Anderson, S. Mohr; D. Baliles; B. Peal, and N. Ozu. 2000. Professional XML. Birmingham, UK: Wrox.

Martin, J. 1996. Cybercorp: The New Business Revolution. New York: Amacom.

Martin, J., and J. Odell. 1992. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

MasterCard. 2001. MasterCard's commitment to your privacy.  http://www.mastercard.com/about/privacy

Mayer, Richard. 1992. Thinking, Problem Solving, Cognition. New York: Freeman.

Mayer, R. E. J. L. Dyck, and L.K. Cook. 1984. Techniques that help readers build mental models from scientific text: Definitions, pretraining, and signaling. Journal of Educational Psychology 76. 1089-1105.

McGovern, G. 2001. Boring is beautiful. Newthinking-list@lists.nua.ie

McGrath, S. 1998. XML by Example: Building e-Commerce Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McKoon, G. 1977. Organization and information in text memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16. 246-260.

McLuhan, M. 1962. The Gutenberg Galaxy. Toronto: University of Toronto.

McLuhan, M. 1964a. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man.  new York: Signet.  Reprinted 1996. Cambride, MA: MIT Press.

McLuhan, M. 1964b. Introduction to reprint of H. Innis, The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto.

Megginson, D. 1998. Structuring XML Documents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Meyer, B. J. F. 1984. Text dimensions and cognitive processing. In Learning and Comprehension of Text, H. Mandl, N. L. Stein, and T. Trabasso, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 3-51.

Microsoft Usability Research. 2000. Improving Web Site Usability and Appeal. http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnsiteplan/html/improvingsiteusa.asp

Middleberg, D. 2001. 2001. Winning PR in the Wired World: Powerful Communications Strategies for the Noisy Digital Space. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miller, George A. 1956. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. The Psychological Review, 63. 81-97.  http://www.well.com/user/smalin/miller.html

Miller, George A. 1962. Some psychological studies of grammar. American Psychologist, 17, 11. 748-762.

Minasi, Mark. 1994. Secrets of Effective GUI Design. Alameda, CA: Sybex.

Mirapaul, M. March 11, 2001. Made especially for you, in industrial quantities. New York Times, 11.

Morkes, John, and Nielsen, Jakob. Applying Writing Guidelines to Web Pages. January 6 1998.

Morrison, M, et al. 2000. XML Unleashed. Indianapolis, IN: Sams.

Mortensen, David. 1997. Miscommunication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Musciano, C. and B. Kennedy. 1997. HTML: The Definitive Guide. Sebastapol, CA: O'Reilly.


NCSA Technology Research Group (Berk, Rupert and Alaina Kanfer). 1996. Review of Web Style Guides. Dropped from their own archive.  Preserved at

Nesdorf, P. February 2001. Getting personal: Online personalization techniques help companies track customer interests while providing them with tailored content. Publish, 52-53.

Nielsen, Jakob, and Morkes, John. 1997. Concise, SCANNABLE, and Objective: How to Write for the Web. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html and http://www.useit.com/papers/webwriting/writing.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1995. Features for the next generation of  Web browsers. Alertbox, July 1995.  http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9507.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1996. Top Ten Mistakes in Web Design. Alertbox, May. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9605.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1997a. Be Succinct! (Writing for the Web). Alertbox. March 15, 1997. http://www.useit.com./alertbox/9703b.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1997b. How Users Read on the Web. October 1997. http://www.useit.com./alertbox/9710a.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1997c. The Fallacy of Atypical Web Examples. Alertbox, June 1, 1997. http://www.useit.com./alertbox/9706a.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1997d. The tyranny of the page. Alertbox, November 1, 1997.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1998a. Using link titles to help users predict where they are going. Alertbox, January 11, 1998.  http://www.useit.com./alertbox/980111.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1998b. Microcontent: How to Write Headlines, Page Titles, and Subject Lines. Alertbox, September 6, 1998. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/980906.html

Nielsen, Jakob (with Schemenaur and Fox). 1998c. Writing for the Web. Sun Microsystems. http://www.sun.com/980713/webwriting/

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999a. Trust or Bust: Communicating Trustworthiness in Web Design. Alertbox, March 7, 1999.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999b. The Top Ten New Mistakes of Web Design. Alertbox, May 30, 1999. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/990530.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999c. Content Integration. Alertbox, June 27, 1999. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/990627.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999d. Ten Good Deeds in Web Design. Alertbox, October 3, 1999. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/991003.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999e. Prioritize: Good Content Bubbles to the Top. Alertbox, October 17, 1999. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/991017.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999f. Designing Web Usability. Indianapolis, IN: New Riders.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000a. Is Navigation Useful? Alertbox, January 9, 2000. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000109.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000b. Eyetracking Study of Web Readers. Alertbox, May 14, 2000. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000514.html

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000c. Customers as Designers. Alertbox, June 11, 2000. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000611.html

Nielsen-Norman Group. 2001. Designing Websites to maximize press relations: Guidelines from usability studies with journalists.  http://www.nngroup.com/reports/pr/summary.html

Norlin, E. February 21, 2001. Personalization Newsletter, Vol. 3, #4. personalization@personalization.com

Norlin, E., and C. Locke. 2001. The Titanic Deck Chair Rearrangement Corporation (newsletter). tdcrc@topica.com

Norman, Donald A. 1980. Cognitive engineering and education. In Problem Solving and Education: Issues in Teaching and Research. New York: Wiley.

Norman, Kent. 1991. The Psychology of Menu Selection. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Object Management Group. (A. Hutt, ed.). 1994. Object Analysis and Design: Description of Methods. New York: Wiley.

O’Malley, Claire E. 1986. Helping users help themselves. In User-Centered System Design. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 377-398.

Ohnemus, Kenneth R. 1997. Web style guides: Who, what, where. 15th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation Conference Proceedings, SIGDOC 97, Crossroads in Communication, October 19-22, 1997. New York: ACM. 189-198.

Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

Omanson, Richard C., June A. Cline, Carol E. Kilpatrick, and Mark C. Dunkerton. 1998. Dimensions affecting Web site identity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 42nd annual meeting. 429-433.

Ong, W., S. J. 1975. The writer's audience is always a fiction.  PMLA 90, 9-21.

Ong, W., S. J. 1982.  Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge.

Otte, Fred H. 1982. Consistent user interface. In Human Factors and Interactive Computer Systems. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 261-275.

Overby, Bruce A. 1997. Order and chaos: A sociological profile of TECHWR-L. 15th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation Conference Proceedings, SIGDOC 97, Crossroads in Communication, October 19-22, 1997. New York: ACM. 199-206.

Overly, M. R. 1999. e-Policy: How to Develop Computer, E-Mail, and Internet Guidelines to Protect Your Company and its Assets.  New York: American Management Association.


Palmer, S., and Rock, I. 1994. Rethinking perceptual organization--the role of uniform connectedness. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 29-55.

Park, D. 1986. Analyzing audiences.  College Composition and Communication 37, 478-488.

Parker, Y. 2001. Damn Good Resumes.  Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed. http://www.damngood.com

Pashler, H. 1998. The Psychology of Attention.  Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Peppers, D., and M. Rogers.  1993. The One-to-One Future: Building Relationships One Customer at a Time.  New York: Doubleday.

Peppers, D., and M. Rogers. 1997. Enterprise One to One: Tools for Competing in the Interactive Age. New York: Doubleday.

Phelps, L. W. 1990. Audience and authorship: The disappearing boundary. In Kirsch, G., and D. H. Roen (eds.), A Sense of Audience in Written Communication.  New bury Park, CA: Sage, 153-174.

Pirillo, C. 1999. Poor Richard's E-Mail Publishing: Creating Newsletters, Bulletins, Discussion Groups, and Other Powerful Communication Tools.  Lakewood, CO: Top Floor Publishing.

Porter, J. E. 1987. Truth in technical advertising: A case study. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 30, 182-189.

Porter, J. E. 1992. Audience and Rhetoric: An Archaeaological Composition of the Discourse Community.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Potts, M. 2001. Musing on the future of journalism. In de Wolk, R., Introduction to Online Journalism: Publishing news and information.  Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Price, Jonathan. 1982. Thirty Days to More Powerful Writing. NY: Fawcett.

Price, Jonathan. 1985. Put That in Writing. NY: Viking.

Price, Jonathan, and Henry Korman. 1993. How to Communicate Technical Information.  Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings.

Price, Jonathan. 1988. Creating a style for online help. In Text, ConText, and HyperText: Writing with and for the Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 330-341.

Price, Jonathan. 1997. Introduction.  Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication: Structuring Complex Information for Electronic Publication. June.

Price, Jonathan. 1998. So you want to freelance as a Webzine writer? 45th Annual Conference 1998 Proceedings. Arlington, VA: STC. 174.

Price, Jonathan.  1999. Outlining Goes Electronic: A Study of the Impact of Media on our Understanding of the Role of Outlining in Virtual and Collaborative Conversations.  ATTW Series, Ablex.

Price, Jonathan. 2000. eCommerce Customer Assistance. 8th Annual WinWriters Online Help Conference, Proceedings.  San Diego, CA: WinWriters.

Price, Jonathan. 2001. Introduction.  Special Issue on Modeling Information in Electronic Space.  Technical Communication.  Volume 48, Number 1. 19-21.

Price, Jonathan. 2002. An ABC of XML Tags. (PDF). Albuquerque, NM: The Communication Circle. Available on Amazon.

Price, Lisa, & Price, Jonathan. 1997. Web Writing. Writer’s Digest, October. 44-47.

Price, Lisa and Jonathan Price. 1999. The Best of Online Shopping. New York: Ballantine.

Q Quirk, R. et al.  1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English.  London: Longman.  

Rajani, R. and D. Rosenberg. 1999. Usable? … Or not? … Factors affecting the usability of Web sites. CMC Magazine. http://www.December.com/cmc/mag/1999/jan/rakros.html

Ramey, Judith. 1989. Escher Effects in Online Text. In The Society of Text: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and the Social Construction of Information. Editor: E. Barrett.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 388-402

Rayner, K., M. Carlson, and L. Frazier. 1983. The interaction of syntax and semantics during sentence processing: Eye movements in the analysis of semantically biased sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 22. 358-374.

Redish, J. C. 1989. Reading to learn to do. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 32, no. 4: 289-293.

Rehling, Louse. 1997. Breaking the rules for web sites. 1997 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, IPCC 97 Proceedings, October 22-25, 1997. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. 101-107.

Reigeluth, C. M. and Stein, F. S. 1983. The elaboration theory of instruction. In Instructional Design Theories and Models, ed. Reigeluth. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reigeluth, C. M., Merrill, M. D., Wilson, B. C., et al. 1980. The elaboration theory of instruction: A model for sequencing and synthesizing instruction. Instructional Science, 9. 195-219.

Reigeluth, C.M., Ed. 1983. Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of Their Current Status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Relles, Nathan. A user interface for online assistance. 1981. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Software Engineering. New York: Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 400-408.

Rhodes, John S. January 11, 1999. The Hidden Truth about Web Content. http://www.webword.com/moving/hiddentruth.html

Roberts-Witt, S. L. December 19, 2000. Personalization: Is it worth it? PC Magazine, Ibiz Section, 8-17.

Robinson, Eleanor R. N. and Knirk, Frederick G. 1984. Interfacing learning strategies and instructional strategies in computer training programs. In Human Factors Review. Santa Monica: The Human Factors Society. 209-238.

Rockley, Ann, with Pamela Kostur and Steve Manning. Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy.  Indianapolis, IN: New Riders.

Roemer, J. M. and Champanis, A. 1982. Learning performance and attitudes as a function of the reading grade level of a computer-presented tutorial. In Proceedings of Human Factors in Computer Systems Conference. Gaithersburg, MD: Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National Bureau of Standards. 239-244.

Rosenfeld, Louis. July 9, 1999. Cuisinarts, E-Commerce, and… Controlled Vocabularies. WebReview. http://www.ddj.com/documents/s=3232/nam1012432613/index.html

Rosenfeld, Louis, and Peter Morville. 2nd Edition, 2002. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.

Rotenberg, M. (ed.). 2000. The Privacy Law Sourcebook: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments. Washington, DC: Electronic Privacy Information Center.

Rothkopf, E.Z. 1971. Incidental memory for location of information in text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 10. 608-613.

Rowland, Claire. May 26, 2000. Users Matter: Meeting Site Visitor Needs. Web Review.
See also (March 2000)  Usability Maters: http://www.ddj.com/documents/s=3856/nam1012432307/index.html

Rubin, J. 1994. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests.  New York: Wiley.

Rumbaugh, J., M. Blaha, W. Premerlani, F. Eddy, W. Lorensen. 1991. Object-Oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall


Sammons, M. 1999. The Internet Writer's Handbook.  Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Sawhney, M. 2001. Contextual marketing and the rise of consumer metamediaries.  Presentation at MSN Strategic Account Summit. Redmond, WA. http://www.mohansawhney.com

Sawhney, M. and D. Parikh. 2000. Net economy boundaries: Use 'em or lose 'em. [Draft] http://www.mohansawhney.com

Sawhney, M., and J. Zabin. 2001. The Seven Steps to Nirvana. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Scasny, R. 2001. Website Flow.  Personal communication.

Schriver, K. A. 1997. Dynamics in Document Design.  New York: Wiley.

Seybold, P. B. with R. T. Marshak.  1998. Customers.com: How to Create a Profitable Business Strategy for the Internet and Beyond.  New York: Random House.

Seybold, P. B. with R.T. Marshak and J. M. Lewis. 2001. The Customer Revolution: How to Thrive When Customers are in Control.  New York: Random House.

Shearer, N. A. 1972. Alexander Bain and the genesis of paragraph theory.  Quarterly Journal of Speech, 58, pp. 408-417.

Shirk, Henrietta Nickels. 1988. Technical writers as computer scientists: The challenges of online documentation. In Text, ConText, and HyperText: Writing with and for the Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 311-327.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1982. System message design: Guidelines and experimental results. In Directions in Human/Computer Interaction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 55-78.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1989. Reflections on authoring, editing, and managing hypertext. In The Society of Text: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and the Social Construction of Information. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 2nd Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1998. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 3rd Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Shneiderman, Ben and Greg Kearsley. 1989. Hypertext Hands-On! Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Siegel, David. 1996. Creating Killer Web Sites. Indianapolis, IN: Hayden.

Silvia, Sharon. 1998. Art/Technology. Interview with Amy Gahran. http://arttech.about.com/hobbies/arttech/library/weekly/aa101598.htm

Silver, D. 1997. Introducing cyberculture.  http://www.otal.umd.edu/~rccs/

Silver, D.  2000. Looking backwards, looking forward: Cyberculture studies 1990-2000. In Gauntlett, D., ed. Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age. New York: Oxford University Press.  19-30.

Simpson, Henry. 1985. Design of User-Friendly Programs for Small Computers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Slatin, John. 1988a. Hypertext and the teaching of writing. In Text, ConText, and HyperText: Writing with and for the Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 111-129.

Slatin, John. 1988b. Toward a rhetoric for hypertext. In Hypermedia ’88. Houston, TX: University of Houston-Clear Lake and NASA/Johnson Space Center. 135-139.

Solomon, S. March 20, 2001. What does the media think of your site? http://www.clickz.com/article/cz.3604.html

Spool, Jared, with Tara Scanlon, Will Schroeder, Carolyn Snyder, and Terri De Angelo. 1997. Web Site Usability: A Designer’s Guide. North Andover, MA: User Interface Engineering.

Spyridakis, Jan H. 2000. Guidelines for Authoring Comprehensible Web Pages and Evaluating their Success. Technical Communication, Volume 47, Number 3, pp. 359-382.

Sterne, Jim. 1996. Customer Service on the Internet: Building Relationships, Increasing Loyalty, and Staying Competitive. New York: Wiley.

Stevens, K. 1980. Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly 16, Number 1. 32-71.

Suh, S., and T. Trabasso. 1993. Inferences during reading: Converging evidence from discourse analysis, talk-aloud protocols, and recognition priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 32. 279-301.

Sullivan, Terry. 1996-1998. All Things Web. http://www.pantos.org/atw

Sun Microsystems (Nielsen, Schemenaur, Fox). 1994-2000. Writing for the Web. http://www.sun.com/980713/webwriting/

Sweat, J. December 11, 2000. Are customers kings? Information Week, 41-54.


Tarutz, Judith. 1992. Technical Editing: The Practical Guide for Editors and Writers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Taylor, D. 1992.  Object-Oriented Information Systems: Planning and Implementation. New York: Wiley.

Thinus-Blanc, C. and F. Gaunet.  1999.  Spatial processing in animals and humans: The organizing function of representations for information gathering.  In Golledge, R. G. (ed.), Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes.  Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Tognazzini, Bruce. 1992. Tog on Interface. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Trabasso, T., and P. van den Broek. 1985. Causal thinking and the representation of narrative events. Journal of Memory and Language 24. 612-630.

Travis, B. and D. Waldt. 1995. The SGML Implementation Guide. Berlin: Springer.

Tufte, Edward R. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Turner, RT. T. Douglass, A. Turner. 1996. ReadMe 1st: SGML for Writers and Editors. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Uncle Netword. 1999a. Creating User-Centered Copy.

Uncle Netword. 1999b. Information Architecture.

Uncle Netword. 1999c. WebStyle Guide.

Usborne, N. 2001a. The importance of being earnest.  http://clickz.com/print.jsp?article=3156

Usborne, N. 2001b. Can a company speak with a sincere voice?  http://clickz.com/print.jsp?article=3444

Usborne, N. 2001c. Who says long copy doesn't work online?  http://clickz.com/print.jsp?article=3525

Utting, K., and Yankelovich, N. 1989. Context and orientation in hypermedia networks. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 7:1. 58-84.


van Dijk, T. and Kintsch, W. 1983. Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. New York: Academic Press.

Veen, Jeffrey. 1994-2000. Hot Design Tips. http://hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey/98/34/index1a_page6.html?

Veen, Jeffrey. 2001. Interview. http://www.webreference.com/interviews/veen/

Visa. 2001. Privacy Matters. http://www.visa.com/ut/faq/privacy.html

Voss, J. F., R. H. Fincher-Kiefer, T. R. Greene, and T. A. Post. 1986. Individual differences in performance: The contrastive approach to knowledge. In Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, R. J. Sternberg, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 297-345.


W3C. 1999. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0.

Waite, Robert. 1982. Making information easy to use: A summary of research. In Proceedings of International Technical Communication Conference. Washington, DC: Society for Technical Communication. E 120-123.

Walker, Janet H. 1987a. Document examiner: Delivery interface for hypertext documents. In Hypertext ’87 Papers. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina. 307-323.

Walker, Janet H. 1987b. Issues and strategies for online documentation. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, PC-30, 4. 235-248.

Wasson, P. C., and Johnson-Laird, P. N. 1972. Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

Weiss, Edmond. 1991. How to Write Usable User Documentation. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx.

Weiss, M. J. 2001. Online America.  American Demographics. March 2001. http://www.americandemographics.com

Whitaker, Leslie. A., and S. Stacey. 1981. Response times to left and right directional signals. Human Factors, 223, 4. 447-452.

Whitaker, Leslie A. 1998. Human navigation. In Human Factors and Web Development, ed. Chris Forsythe, Eric Grose, and Julie Ratner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 63-71.

White, C. March 8, 2001. Custom Fit: Personalization can greatly improve productivity and usability while providing key marketing advantages. Intelligent Enterprise, 26-31.

Wickens, C.D. 1984. Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Williams, Joseph M. 1990. Style: Toward Clarity and Grace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Williams, Thomas R. 1994. Schema theory. In Technical Communications Frontiers: Essays in Theory, C. H. Sides, ed. St. Paul, MN: Association of Teachers of Technical Writing, 81-102.

Williams, Thomas R. 2000. Guidelines for Designing and Evaluating the Display of Information on the Web. Technical Communication, Volume 47, Number 3, pp. 383-396.

Winsberg, Freya Y. 1987. Online documentation: Tutorials that are easy to take. In Proceedings of 34th International Technical Communication Conference. Washington, DC: Society for Technical Communication. ATA 101-104.

Wood, L. E. 1996. The ethnographic interview in user-centered work/task analysis. In Wixon, D. and J. Ramey (eds.) Field Methods Casebook for Software Design.  New York: Wiley. 35-56.

Y Young, R. L, A.L. Becker, K. L. Pike. 1970.  Rhetoric: Discovery and Change.  New York: Harcourt Brace.

Yourdon, E. 1994. Object-Oriented Systems Design: An Integrated Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Zemke, R., and T. Connellan. 2001. e-Service: 24 Ways to Keep Your Customers when the Competition is Just a Click Away. New York: American Management Association.

Zimmerman, Donald El, Muraski, Michel, Estes, Emily, and Hallmark, Bruce. A formative evaluation method for designing WWW sites. 1997 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, IPCC 97 Proceedings, October 22-25, 1997. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. 223-230.

Zipf, G.K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.



Home | Guidelines | Rants | Patterns | Poems | Services | Classes | Press | Blog | Resources | About Us

Web Writing that Works!
 © 2003 Jonathan and Lisa Price
The Communication Circle
Discuss at HotText@yahoogroups.com
Email us directly at ThePrices@ThePrices.com
Order Hot Text (the book) from Amazon