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HomeGuidelines > 4. Build chunky paragraphs. > 4b. Put the idea of the paragraph first.> Challenges

 

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Challenges

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Challenges

(a)

Reorganize and carve into paragraphs, each with a topic sentence.

Like the Gestaltists, Polya stresses the importance of restating the goal (working back from what you want to achieve to the materials given) and restating the givens (working forward from what you are given to the goal). Of course, these ideas are too vague to test experimentally, we cannot call his work empirically based, although it does, of course, derive from his many years teaching students to solve geometric and mathematical problems. He sketches out four steps for problem solving in How to Solve It (1957):

1. Understanding the problem, during which you ask, "What do I have in terms of data, or conditions?" and "What do I want, or what is still unknown?"

2. Devising a plan, during which, based on past experience, you come up with a plan by asking, "Do I remember a problem like this? Can I restate the goal in some new way, based on what I did before? Or can I restate the givens in some new way, working forward from there to my goal?"

3. Carrying out the plan, during which you do each step of your plan.

4. Looking back, during which you check your results by using some other method, to see if all the pieces fit together, and you ask yourself, "Can I use this method on some other problem?"

You can see that Polya’s first step, in which one endeavors to understand the problem, corresponds roughly to Wallas’ preparation. But part of devising the plan corresponds to that phase, as well, but includes what Wallas calls incubation and illumination, too. Looking back corresponds closely to Wallas’ verification. Without careful experiments, we cannot say for sure that either description is accurate, because both are subjective; our intuition agrees with both descriptions, but science expects more of us than hunches. So Polya ends up being, simply, another example of the introspective approach—suggestive, but not scientifically validated. Polya’s emphasis on rearranging our view of the givens or goal, though, resembles Gestaltian restructuring.

Answer


Other ways to make chunky paragraphs:

4a.  Design each paragraph around one idea.

4c. If you must include context, put that first.

4d. Put key conclusions, ideas, news, at the start of the article.

Resources on chunkiness

Taking a Position on chunkiness

Poster

 

 

(b)

If you are looking for birth announcements, or wondering what our site offers, we have worked hard to put together more than 100 fabulous designs for birth announcements, in many different categories, and we are sure you will love our huge selection, which includes sports motifs, outdoor themes, Western look, and Noah’s ark. Get ready for the big day by ordering birth announcements ahead of time. Browse through our designs and pick one today. Place your order right away, and as soon as your baby is born, email us with your baby’s name, height, and weight. Within 48 hours of your email, we’ll ship your specially printed announcements to you. Solution

Answer

 
  (c)

We have adult and kid versions of this hot product. The T-stand holds the ball out for the batter to hit. This device is light and portable, and stands up to a lot of swings and misses. The payoff is that with the ball on the T-stand, the batters learn how to swing at the ball in the right way, without having to worry about the pitcher. Solution

Answer

 
  (d)

Existing batteries take up a lot of space, and run of juice quickly. Trying to solve these interrelated problems, researchers at the Department of Energy’s Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California, have invented a way to combine silicon with graphite, to make the anodes inside the battery. "We want to license this technology to manufacturers of laptop computers, cell phones, power tools—even electric automobiles," said Val Scott, of Sandia. The new composite of silicon and graphite promises to double the energy that rechargeable batteries can store, leading to longer lives, and smaller sizes.

Answer

 

 

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