Web Writing That Works!

           A Project of
           The Communication Circle

Guidelines Rants Patterns Poems Services Classes Press Blog Resources About Us Site Map

HomeRants > Goodbye documents, hello objects! > Outlining electronically > A bibliography on outlining




A bibliography on outlining

These books and articles lie behind my arguments about outlining. 

You will notice a lot of textbooks here.  I consulted them to see what the authors, mostly professors of composition or technical writing, thought about outlines and outlining.

You will also find a lot of talk about collaboration, learning theory, and conversation--reflecting my sense that outlining is a way of working together.

In looking at the work of scholars in rhetoric, composition, and technical writing, I concluded that we do not really have a coherent theory of outlining.  So I undertook to create one.

In that effort, medium turned out to be a key factor: going from paper outlines to electronic outlining revealed what made paper such an uncomfortable arena for thinking about the arrangement of parts in our content, while showing what a wonderful opportunity these new tools give us to use verbal and visual structuring as a way of learning, and talking together.



Related articles:

A history of outlining: From papyrus to electrons (PDF 699K, 104 pages, 12 minutes at 56K)

STOP: light on the history of outlining

How electronic outlining can help you create online materials

Making your writing visible--with electronic outlining

Extending the collaborative conversation
 --with electronic outlining (PDF, 206K,
4 minutes at 56K)


Adelson, N., & Jordan, T. (1992). The need for negotiation in cooperative work. In E. Barrett (Ed.), Sociomedia: Multimedia, hypermedia, and the social construction of knowledge (pp. 469-492). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Agger, B. (1992). Cultural studies as critical theory. London: Oxford University Press.

Allen, N., Atkinson, D., Morgan, M., Moore, T., & Snow, C. (1987). What experienced collaborators say about collaborative writing. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 1 (2), 70-90.

Alred, G., Oliu, W., & Brusaw, C. (1992). The professional writer: A guide for advanced technical writing. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Alvarez, J. (1980). Elements of technical writing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Anderson, S. L., Campbell, C., Hindle, N., Price, J., & Scasny, R. (1998). Editing a website: Extending the levels of edit. IEEE Transactions in Professional Communication, 41 (March), 47-57.

Andrews, C. (1975). Technical and business writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Andrews, D., & Blickle, M. (1982). Technical writing: Principles and forms. New York: Macmillan.

Apple Computer. (1987). Apple human interface guidelines: The Apple desktop interface. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Apple, M.W. (1986). Teachers and texts: A political economy of class and gender relations in education. New York, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Arthur, W.B. (1990). Positive feedbacks in the economy. Scientific American, February. 92-99.

--- (1996) Increasing returns and the two worlds of business. (Working Paper for Santa Fe Institute Research Program 96-05-028). Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe Institute.


Baker, W. H. (1994). How to produce and communicate structured text. Technical Communication, 41, 456-466.

Bakhtin, M.M. (1981).The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. (M. Holquist, Ed., C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. (Original essays from 1937 to 1941).

--- (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Eds., V. W. McGee, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, M., & Volosinov, V.N. (1986). Marxism and the philosophy of language. (L. Matejka & I. Titunik, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard. (Original published 1929).

Balestri, D. P. (1988). Softcopy and hard: Word processing and writing process. Academic Computing, 14-17, 41-45.

Barrett, E. (1988). Introduction: A new paradigm for writing with and for the computer. In E. Barrett (Ed.), Text, conText, and hyperText: Writing with and for the computer, pp. xiii-xxv.. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

---. (1989). Textual intervention, collaboration, and the online environment. In E. Barrett (Ed.), The society of text: Hypertext, hypermedia, and the social construction of information, pp. 227-249. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Barrett, E., & Paradis, J. (1988). Teaching writing in an on-line classroom. Harvard Education Review, 58, 154-71.

Barthes, R. (1974). S/Z: An essay. (R. Miller, Trans.). New York: Hill &Wang. (Original published in 1970).

--- . (1982). Empire of signs. (R. Howard, Trans.). New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux. (Original published in 1970).

--- . (1986). From work to text. In R. Howard (Trans.), The Rustle of Language. New York: Hill & Wang. (Original, 1971).

Batschelet, M. W. (1988). Plain style and scientific style: The influence of the Puritan plain style sermon on early American science writers. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 18 (4), 287-295.

Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. (Trans. P. Foss, P. Patton, & P. Beitchman). New York: Semiotext(e).

Baugh, L. S. (1993). How to write term papers and reports. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons.

Bazerman, C. (1994). Constructing experience. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Beach, R. (1976). Self-evaluation strategies of extensive reviewers and non-revisers. College Composition and Communication, 34, 297-312.

Beaugrande, R. de. (1984). Text production. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Beaugrande, R. de, & Dressler, W. (1981). Introduction to text linguistics. New York: Longman.

Bell, A. H. (1995). Tools for technical and professional communication. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing.

Bell, D. (1975). The social framework of the information society. In M. Dertouzos & J. Moses (Eds). The computer age: A twenty-year view (pp. 163-211). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bernhardt, S. A. (1986). Seeing the text. College Composition and Communication, 37, 66-78.

Bernhardt, S. A., Edwards, P., & Wojahn, P. (1989). Teaching college composition with computers: A program evaluation. Written Communication, 6, 108-133.

Bilsky, M., McCrea, H., Streeter, R., & Weaver, R. (1953). Looking for an argument. College English, 14, 210-216.

Bizzell, P. (1982). College composition: Initiation into the academic discourse community. Curriculum Inquiry, 12, 191-207

Bleich, D. (1995). Collaboration and the pedagogy of disclosure. College English, 57 (1), 43-61.

Bolter, J. D. (1991). Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Borowick, J. (1996). Technical communication and its applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bradford, A. N. (1983). Cognitive immaturity and remedial college writers. In J. N. Hays, P. A. Roth, J. R. Ramsey, and R. D. Foulke (Eds.), The writer's mind: Writing as a mode of thinking, pp. 15-24. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Brantlinger, P. (1990). Crusoe's footprints: Cultural studies in Britain and America. New York: Routledge.

Bridwell, L.S. (1980). Revising strategies in twelfth grade students' transactional writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 14, 197-222.

Brockmann, R. J. (1990)Writing better computer user documentation: From paper to online, Version 2.0. New York: Wiley.

Bruffee, K. A. (1983). Writing and reading as collaborative or social acts. In J. N. Hays, P. A. Roth, J. R. Ramsey, & R. D. Foulke, The writer's mind: Writing as a mode of thinking, pp. 159-169. Urbana, IL: NCTE..

--- (1984). Collaborative learning and 'the conversation of mankind.' College English, 46, 635-652.

---. (1986). Social construction, language, and the authority of knowledge. College English, 48, 773-790.

Brusaw, C., Alred, G., & Oliu, W. (1993). Handbook of technical writing (Fourth Edition). New York: St Martin's Press.

Burnett, R. E. (1993). Conflict in collaborative decision-making. In N. R. Blyler & C. Thralls (Eds.), Professional communication: The social perspective (pp. 144-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Burnor, R. N. (1995). Outlines for success: Computer outlining and teaching philosophy. Teaching Philosophy, 18 (1). <http:maxthink.com/max.html> (1998, August 26).

Burtis, P. J., Bereiter,C., Scardamalia, M., & Tetroe, J. (1983). The development of planning in writing. In G. Wells & B. M. Kroll (Eds.), Explorations in the development of writing (pp. 153-174). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.


Card, S., Moran, T.P., & Newell, A. (1983). The psychology of human-computer interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Carmody, S., Gross, W., Nelson, T. H., Rice, D., & van Dam, A. (1969). A hypertext editing system for the /360." In M. Faiman & J. Nievergetl (Eds.), Pertinent concepts in computer graphics (pp. 291-330). Urbana, IL: U of Illinois Press.

Charney, D. (1994). The effect of hypertext on processes of reading and writing. In C. L. Selfe & S. Hilligoss, (Eds.), Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp. 238-263). (Research and Scholarship in Composition Series). New York: Modern Language Association.

Chartier, R. (1994). The order of books: Readers, authors, and libraries in Europe between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries (L. G. Cochrane, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. (Original, 1992).

Cicero, M. T. (1942a). De oratore. (Books I & II). (E.W. Sutton and H. Rackham, Trans.). (Loeb Classical Library #348). Cambridge, MA: Harvard. (Original, 55 B.C.)

Cicero, M. T. (1942b). De oratore. (Book III), De fato, Paradoxica Stoicorum, De partitione oratoria (H. Rackham, Trans.). (Loeb Classical Library #349). Cambridge, MA: Harvard. (Original, 55 B.C.)

Cicero, M. T. (1949). De inventione, De optimo genere oratorum, & Topica.(H. M. Hubbell, Trans.). (Loeb Classical Library #386). Cambridge, MA: Harvard. (Original of De inventione, 46 B.C.)

Clear, J. H. (1993) The British National Corpus. In G. P. Landow & P. Delany (Eds.), The digital word: Text-based computing in the humanities (pp. 163-187). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Coe, R. M. (1981). Form and substance: An advanced rhetoric. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

---. (1987). An apology for form: Or, who took form out of the process? College English, 49, 13-28.

Coles, W. E, Jr. (1991). The dialogues of teaching: Learning to listen. Composition Studies, 12, 34-46.

Cook, M. A. (1996). Building enterprise information architectures: Reenginering information systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Coombs, J. H., Renear, A.H., & DeRose, S.J. (1987). Markup systems and the future of scholarly text processing. Communications of the ACM, 30, 933-47. Reprinted in G. P. Landow & P. Delany (Eds.) (1993) The digital word: Text-based computing in the humanities (pp. 85-118). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cooper, M. M., & Selfe, C. L. (1990). Computer conferences and learning: Authority, resistance, and internally persuasive discourse. College English, 52, 847-869.

Costanzo, W. (1994). Reading, writing, and thinking in an age of electronic literacy. In C. L. Selfe & S. Hilligoss (Eds.), Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp. 11-21) New York: Modern Language Association.

Coupland, D. (1995). Microserfs. New York: Harper Collins.

Couture, B., & Rymer, J. (1989). Interactive writing on the job: Definitions and implications of collaboration. In M. Kogen (Ed.), Writing in the business professions (pp. 73-93). Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Crawford, W. (1989). Common-sense outline processing. Library Hi-Tech, 16, 63-77.

Crews, F. (1980). The Random House handbook.. New York: Random House.


Daiute, C. (1985). Writing and computers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

---. (1986). Do 1 and 1 make 2?: Patterns of influence by collaborative authors. Written Communication, 3, 382-408.

Damerst, W. (1982).Clear technical reports. New York: HBJ Media Systems.

Danforth, S. (1665). An astronomical description of the late comet or blazing star as it appeared in New-England in the 9th, 10th, 11th, and in the beginning of the 12th moneth (sic), 1664. Together with a brief theological application thereofe. Cambridge, MA: Samuel Green.

Darnton, J. (1966, June 15). House is given its due: Darwin cogitated here, with photographs by J. Player. The New York Times, International Section, p. 4.

Darwin, C. (1889). In F. Darwin (Ed.), The life and letters of Charles Darwin. New York: Appleton.

Davis, R. M. (1977). How important is technical writing? A survey of the opinions of successful engineers. Technical Writing Teacher, 4 (1), 83-88.

DeKoven, B. (1995). The fun factor in groupware design and implementation. <http:\\www.california.com\fun\funfactr.htm> (1998, August 3).

---. (1998a). Secrets of technography. <http:\\www.california.com\fun/secrets.htm> (1998, August 3).

---. (1998b). Welcome to the In Formation age. <http:\\www.california.com\fun\in_form.htm> (1998, August 3).

Derrida, J. (1973). Speech and Phenomena (D.B. Allison, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

---. (1981). Dissemination (B. Johnson, Trans.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original, 1972).

---. (1986). Glas (J.P. Leavey, Jr. & R. Rand, Trans.). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press. (Original, 1974).

Dietrich, J., & Brooks, K. (1958). Practical speaking for the technical man. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Dobrin, D. N. (1987). Some ideas about idea processors. In L. Gerrard (Ed.), Writing at century's end: Essays on computer-assisted composition (pp. 95-107). New York: Random House.

Duin, A.H. (1991). Computer-supported collaborative writing: The workplace and the writing classroom. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 5 (2), 123-150.

Duin, A. H., & Burnett, R. (1993). Collaboration in technical communication: A research continuum. Technical Communication Quarterly, 2 (1), 5-21.

Duin, A. H. & Hansen, C. (1994). Reading and writing on computer networks as social construction and social interaction. In C. L. Selfe, & S. Hilligoss (Eds.), Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp. 89-112). New York: Modern Language Association.


Ede, L., & Lunsford, A. (1986). Why write...together: A research update. Rhetoric Review, 5 (1), 71-81.

---. (1990). Singular texts/Plural authors: Perspectives on collaborative writing. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Ehrlich, E., & Murphy, D. (1964).Writing and researching term papers and reports: A new guide for students. New York: Bantam.

Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with power. New York: Oxford.

Eldred, J. M. (1989). Computers, composition pedagogy, and the social view. In G. E. Hawisher & C. L. Selfe (Eds.) Critical perspectives on computers and composition instruction (pp. 201-218). New York: Teachers' College Press.

Elsbree, L., & Bracher, F. (1967). Heath's college handbook of composition. Boston: D.C. Heath.

Emig, J. (1971). The composing processes of twelfth graders. (Research Report No. 13). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Engelbart, D. C., & English, W. K. (1968). A research center for augmenting human intellect. In I. Greif (Ed.), Computer-supported cooperative work: A book of readings (pp. 81-105). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Enos, R. L. (1985). Ciceronian dispositio as an architecture for creativity in composition: A note for the affirmative. Rhetoric Review, 4, 108-110.

Erasmus, D. (1978). De copia. In C. R. Thompson (Ed.) Collected works of Erasmus: Literary and educational writings 2: De copia. De ratione studii. (B. I. Knott, Trans.). (Original work, 1512).


Faigley, I. (1985) Nonacademic writing: The social perspective. In L. Odell & D. Goswami (Eds.), Writing in nonacademic settings (pp. 231-248). New York: Guilford.

Faigley, L. & Witte, S. (1981). Analyzing revision. College Composition and Communication, 32, 400-414.

Faigley, L., & Miller, T. (1982). What we learn from writing on the job. College English, 44, 557-569.

Farkas, D. (1995). Four research issues. Technical Communication, 42, 587-589.

Fish, S. (1995). Professional correctness: Literary studies and political change. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Fitschen, K. (1986). Effective advice to beginning writers: Revise the hard copy. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 13 (2), 104-108.

Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1980). The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 31-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

---. (1981a). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32 (1), 365-387.

---. (1981b). The pregnant pause: An inquiry into the nature of planning. Research in the Teaching of English, 15, 229-243.

--- (1984). Images, plans, and prose: The representation of meaning in writing. Written Communication, 1 (1), 120-160.

Flower, L., Stein, V., Ackerman, J., Kantz, M. J., McCormick, K., & Peck, W.C. (1990). Reading-to-write.: Exploring a cognitive and social process. New York: Oxford.

Forman, J. (1991). Novices work on group reports: Problems in group writing and in computer-supported group writing. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 5 (1), 48-75.

Fortune, R. (1989). Visual and verbal thinking: Drawing and word processing software in writing instruction. In G. E. Hawisher & C. L. Selfe, (Eds.) Critical perspectives on computers and composition instruction (pp. 145-61). New York: Teachers College Press.

Fowler, H., Aaron, J., & Limburg, K. (1992). The Little Brown handbook, Instructor's annotated edition. New York: HarperCollins.


Galbraith, D. (1992). Conditions for discovery through writing. In M. Sharples (Ed.), Computers and writing: Issues and implementations (pp. 45-71). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Gere, A. R. (1987). Writing groups: History, theory, and implications. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Goldstein, J. R., & Malone, E. L. Using journals to strengthen collaborative writing. College English, 42, 557-569.

Greenblatt, S. (1980). Renaissance self-fashioning: From More to Shakespeare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

----. (1988a). Representing the English renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press.

-----. (1988b). Shakespearean negotiations: The circulation of social energy in renaissance England. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Greenblatt, S., & Gunn, G. (Eds.). (1992). Redrawing the boundaries: The transformation of English and American literary studies. New York: Modern Language Association.

Greene, J.C. (1957/58). Objectives and methods in intellectual history. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 44, 58-74.


Haas, C. (1989a). Does the medium make a difference? A study of composing with pen and paper and with a computer. Human-Computer Interaction, 4, 149-169.

---. (1989b). How the writing medium shapes the writing process: Effects of word processing on planning. Research in the Teaching of English, 23, 181-207.

_______ . (1996). Writing technology: Studies on the materiality of literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Haas, C., & Hayes, J. R. (1986). Pen and paper vs the machine: Writers composing in hard copy and computer conditions. (CDC Technical Report 16). Pittsburgh, PA: Communication Design Center, Carnegie-Mellon University.

Hacker, D. (1994).The Bedford handbook for writers. Boston: St. Martin's Press.

Hacker, D., & Renshaw, B. (1979). A practical guide for writers. Boston: Little, Brown.

Hagge, J. (1995, October). Early engineering writing textbooks and the anthropological complexity of disciplinary discourse. Written Communication, 12 (4), 439-491.

Halio, M. P. (1990). Student writing: Can the machine maim the message? Academic Computing, January, 16-19, 45.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. Baltimore: University Park Press.

--- (1987). Spoken and written modes of meaning. In R. Horowitz & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 55-82). New York: Academic Press.

Hammond, K., & Allen, J. Jr. (1953). Writing clinical reports. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Harpold, T. (1991). Threnody: Psychoanalytic digressions on the subject of hypertexts. In P. Delany & G. Landow (Eds.), Hypermedia and literary studies (pp. 171-81).Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hartwell, P. (1979). Teaching arrangement: A pedagogy. College English , 40, 548-554.

Harwell, G. (1960).Technical communication. New York: Macmillan.

Hawisher, G. E. (1987). Research update: Writing and word processing. Computers and Composition, 5, 7-23.

----. (1989). Research and recommendations for computers and composition. In G. E. Hawisher & C.L. Selfe, (Eds.) Critical perspectives on computers and composition: Teaching and research in the virtual age (pp.44-69) Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.

---. (1991). Connecting the visual and the verbal. In W. Wrensch (Ed.), Lessons for the computer age (pp. 129-132). Urbana, IL: NCTE.

--- . (1994). Blinding insights: Classification schemes and software for literacy instruction. In C.L. Selfe & S. Hilligoss (Eds.) Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp.37-55). New York: Modern Language Association.

Hayes, J., & Flower, L. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.) Cognitive processes in writing: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 3-30) Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Hayes-Roth, N., & Hayes-Roth, F. (1979). A cognitive model of planning. Cognitive Science, 3, 275-310.

Hays, R. (1965). Principles of technical writing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hedden, C. (1992). Hypertext and collaboration: Observations on Edward Barrett's philosophy. Technical Communication Quarterly, I (4), 27-41.

Heim, M. (1987). Electric language: A philosophical study of word processing. New Haven, CT: Yale.

---- . (1993). The metaphysics of virtual reality. New York: Oxford.

Hill, D. J. (1990). The science of rhetoric. New York. Excerpted in P. Bizzell & B. Herzberg (Eds.), The rhetorical tradition (pp. 877-881). Boston, MA: Bedford Books, of St. Martin's Press. (Original work published 1877, New York).

Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition.: New directions for teaching Urbana, IL: National Conference on Research on English and ERIC-RCS.

Horton, S. R. (1982). Thinking through writing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

Horton, W., Taylor, L., Ignacio, A., & Holt, N. I. (1996). The Web page design cookbook. New York: Wiley.

Houp, K., Pearsall, T., & Tebeaux, E, with Redish, J. (1995). Reporting technical information. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Hult, C., & Harris, J. (1987). A writer's introduction to word processing. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Humphrey, D. (1987). Computers and collaboration: Writing as a social skill. Assembly on Computers in English Newsletter, July-September, 3.

Hutchins, E., Hollan, J., Norman, D. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. In D. Norman & S.W. Draper (Eds.), User-centered design: New perspectives on human-computer interaction (pp. 87-124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Illych, I. (1973). Tools for conviviality. New York: Harper & Row. <http://www.la.psu.edu/philo/illich/tools.html> (1998, September 6).

InfoDesign List. (1998). (Email list). InfoDesign@wins.uva.nl

Innis, H. (1951). The bias of communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Irish, P.M., & Trigg, R.H. (1989). Supporting collaboration in hypermedia: Issues and experiences. In E. Barrett (Ed.), The society of text: Hypertext, hypermedia, and the social construction of knowledge (pp. 93-106). Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.


Jackson, S. L. (1974). Libraries and librarianship in the West: A brief history. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Johnson, J. (1992). The Bedford guide to the research process. New York: St. Martins Press.

Johnson, S. (1997). Interface culture: How new technology transforms the way we create and communicate. New York: HarperCollins.

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan. (1994). Reading and writing in hypertext: Vertigo and euphoria. In C.L. Selfe & S. Hilligoss (Eds.) Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp. 195- 219). New York: Modern Language Association.

Jordan, J. (1965).Using rhetoric. New York, Harper & Row.

Joyce, M. (1988). Siren shapes: Exploratory and constructive hypertexts. Academic Computing, November, 10-15.


Kaplan, N. (1991). Ideology, technology, and the future of writing instruction. In G. E. Hawisher & C.L. Selfe (Eds.), Evolving perspectives on computers and composition studies: Questions for the 1990s. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Kaplan, N.,& Moulthrop, S. (1990) Computers and controversy: Other ways of seeing. Computers and Composition, 7, 89-102.

----. (1993). Seeing through the interface: computers and the future of composition. In G. P. Landow & P. Delany (Eds.) The digital word: Text-based computing in the humanities (pp. 253-270). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kaufer, D. S., Fleming, D., Werner, M., Sinsheimer-Weeks, A. (1993). Collaborative argument across the visual-verbal interface. Technical Communication Quarterly, 2 (1), 37-49.

Kaufer, D.S., Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. (1986). Composing written sentences. Research in the Teaching of English, 20, 121-140.

Kellogg, R. T. (1986). Writing method and productivity of science and engineering faculty. Research in Higher Education, 25, 147-163.

---. (1988). Attentional overload and writing performance: Effects of rough draft and outline strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14 (2), 355-365.

---. (1994). The psychology of writing. New York: Oxford.

Kennedy, M. L. (1985). The composing process of college students writing from sources. Written Communication, 2, 434-456.

Kiesler, S., Siegel, J., & McGuire, T. (1988). Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication. In I. Greif (Ed.) Computer-supported cooperative work (pp. 657-682). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman.

Knoblauch, C. H., & Brannon, L. (1984). Rhetorical traditions and the teaching of writing. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton.

Kostelnick, C. (1989a) Process paradigms in design and composition: Affinities and directions. College Composition and Communication, 40, 267-281.

--- (1989b). Visual rhetoric: A reader-oriented approach to graphics and designs. The Technical Writing Teacher, 16, 77-88.

---(1990). Typographical design, modernist aesthetics, and professional communication. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 4, 5-24.

---(1994). From pen to print: The new visual landscape of professional communication. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 8, 91-117.

--- (1996). Supra-Textual design: The visual rhetoric of whole documents. Technical Communication Quarterly, 5, 9-34.

Kremers, M. (1990). Sharing authority on a synchronous network: The case for riding the beast. In M. Kremers & J.K. Peyton, (Eds.) Papers from the fifth Computers and Writing Conference (pp. 33-44). (Special issue of Computers and Composition, 7).

Krey, I., & Metzler, B., with Popham, E. (1968). Effective writing for business. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Kuhlthau, C.C. (1988). Longitudinal case studies of the information search process of users in libraries. Library & Information Science Research, 10, 257-304.


Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Conceptual metaphor in everyday language. Journal of Philosophy, 77, 453-484.

Landauer, T. K. (1995). The trouble with computers: Usefulness, usability, and productivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Landow, G. P. (1992). Hypertext: The convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

Landow, G. P., & Delany, P. (Eds.). (1993). The digital word: Text-based computing in the humanities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lanham, R. (1989) The electronic word: Literary study and the digital revolution. New Literary History, 20, 265-90.

--- (1990). Foreword. In C. Handa (Ed.) Computers and community: Teaching composition in the twenty-first century (pp. xiii-xv). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.

---. (1993). The electronic word: Democracy, technology, and the arts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Larson, R. (1996). Co-citation analysis and the WWW. <http://sherlock.berkeley.edu/asis96/node4.html> (1998, August 30).

Lay, M., Wahlstrom, B., Duin, A., Little, S., Selfe, C., Selzer, J., Rude, C., & Doheny-Farina, S. (1995). Technical communication. Chicago: Irwin.

Leggett, G., Mead, D., & Charvat, W. (1960). Prentice Hall handbook for writers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Leggett, G., Mead, D., & Kramer, M. (1991). Prentice Hall handbook for writers (Eleventh Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Lester, J. (1990). Writing research papers, A complete guide. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Lodewijks, H. (1982). Self-regulated versus teacher-provided sequencing of information in learning from text. In A. Flammer & W. Kintsch (Eds.) Discourse processing (pp.509-20). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Loehr, L. (1995). Composing in groups: The concept of authority in cross-functional project teamwork. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 38, 83-94.

Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press.


Mabrito, M. (1992). Real-time computer network collaboration: Case studies of business writing students. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 6 (3), 316-336.

Mager, R. F. (1988). Making instruction work, or skillbloomers. Belmont, CA: Lake.

Mahaney, W. (1981). Workbook of current English. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Mandel, T. (1996). The elements of user interface design. New York: Wiley.

Mandler, J. M. (1984). Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mansfield, C., & Bahniuk, M. (1981). Writing business letters and reports. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishing.

Marckwardt, A., & Cassidy, F. (1960). Scribner handbook of English, 3rd Edition. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Markel, M. (1984). Technical writing: Situations and strategies. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Martin, H. (1957). The logic and rhetoric of exposition. New York: Rinehart.

Matson, E. (1996). The seven sins of deadly meetings. Fast Company, I (2), 123. <http://www.fastcompany.com/online/02/meetings.html> (1998, August 24).

Mazumdar, S., Bao, W, Yuan, Z., & Price, J. (1998). Adding Semantics to SGML Databases. Presentation at Electronic Publishing '98 Conference, Saint Mlo, France (April 1-4, 1998), included in Electronic Publishing, Proceedings of the Electronic Publishing '98 Conference (Lecture notes in computer science series). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (In press).

McCarthy, J. (1981). History of LISP. In R. L. Wexelblat (Ed.), History of programming languages (pp. 173-185). New York: Academic Press.

McCarthy, L.P. (1985). A stranger in strange lands: A college student writing across the curriculum. Unpublished dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. (University Microfilms No. 8515414). <http://www.lib.umi.com/dxweb/details?doc_no=788851> (1998, August 29).

McCutchen, D. (1986). Domain knowledge and linguistic knowledge in the development of writing ability. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 431-444.

McDonald, P.B. (1929). English and science. New York: Van Nostrand.

McKee, B. (1972). Do professional writers use an outline when they write? Technical Communication, 19 (First Quarter), 10-13.

McKee, B. K. (1974/75). Types of outlines used by technical writers. Journal of English Teaching Techniques, 7, 30-36.

McLuhan, M. (1962). The Gutenberg galaxy. Toronto: University of Toronto.

McLuhan, M. (1964a). Understanding media: The extensions of man. New York: Signet. Reprinted 1996. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McLuhan, M. (1964b). Introduction to reprint of Innis, H., The bias of communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Messer-Davidow, E., Shumway, D., & D. J. Sylvan. (Eds.). (1993). Knowledges: Historical and critical studies in disciplinarity. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Meyrowitz, N., & van Dam, A. (1982). Interactive editing systems: Parts I and II. ACM Computing Surveys, 14, 321-415.

Microsoft. (1997). Microsoft encarta 97 encyclopedia. Redmond, WA: Microsoft.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

Miller, P. (1939). The New England mind: The seventeenth century. (Re-issued 1954). Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

Mills, G., & Walter, J. (1962). Technical writing. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

---. (1978). Technical writing (Fourth Edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Mischel, T. (1974). A case study of a twelfth grade writer. Research in the Teaching of English, 8, 303-314.

Moberg, G. (1986). Writing on computers in English composition. New York: Writing Consultant.

Mok, C. (1996). Designing business: Multiple media, multiple disciplines. San Jose, CA: Adobe.

Montaigne, M. de. (1580). Sur Cicero. Essais. Paris.

Moran, C. (1990). The computer-writing room: Authority and control. Computers and Composition, 7, 61-69.

Moulthrop, S. (1989). In the zones: Hypertext and the politics of interpretation. Writing on the Edge 1 (1), 18-27.

Murray, D. M. (1985). The essential delay: When a writer's block isn't. In M. Rose (Ed.) When a writer can't write (pp. 219-226). New York: Guilford Press.

Myers, L.M. (1955). Guide to American English.. (Prentice-Hall English Composition and Introduction to Literature Series). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Naylor, J. (1942). Informative writing. New York: Macmillan.

Nelson, J. (1940). Writing the technical report. New York: McGraw.

Nelson, J. (1992). Constructing a research paper: A study of students' goals and approaches. (Tech Report No. 59). Berkeley, CA: University of California, Center for the Study of Writing.

Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem-solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Nickerson, R. S., Perkins, D. N., & Smith, E. E. (1985). The teaching of thinking. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Nielsen, J. (1998). Designing websites with authority: Secrets of an information architect. Indianapolis, IN: New Riders.

North, S. M. (1987). The making of knowledge in composition: Portrait of an emerging field. Upper Montclair, N.J: Boynton/Cook.

NUA Internet Surveys. (1998). (Electronic newsletter and Web site).. Ireland: Nua, Ltd. <http://www.nua.net/surveys/how_many_online/world.html> (1998, August 25).

Nystrand, M., Greene, S., & Wiemelt, J. (1993). Where did composition studies come from? An intellectual history. Written Communication, 10 (3), 267-333.


Oliu, W., Brusaw, C., & Alred, G. (1995). Writing that works: How to write effectively on the job. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, L.A. (1989). Computer-based writing and communication: Some implications for technical communication activities. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 19, 97-118.

Olson, D. R. (1976). Culture, technology, and intellect. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 189-202). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Olson, G. M., & Atkins, D. E. (1990). Supporting collaboration with adanced multimedia electronic mail: The NSF EXPRES project. In J. Galegher, R. E. Kraut, & C. Egido (Eds.), Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work, pp. 429-451.. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ong, W. J., S. J. (1958). Ramus, method, and the decay of dialogue: From the art of discourse to the art of reason. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

---. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. New York: Methuen.


Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic.

---. (1997). The connected family: Bridging the digital generation gap. Boston: Longstreet.

Pearsall, T., & Cunningham, D. (1978). How to write for the world of work. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Perl, S. (1979). The composing processes of unskilled college writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 13 (4) 317-336.

Perrin, P. (1955). Writer's guide and index to English. Chicago: Scott, Foresman.

Pianko, S. H. (1979). A description of the composing processes of college freshman writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 13, 5-22.

Pickett, N., & Laster, A. (1984). Technical English: Writing, reading, and speaking. New York: Harper & Row.

Pliny the Elder. (1944). Natural history, I, Books 1-2 (H. Rackham, Trans.). (Loeb Classical Library #330). . Cambridge, MA: Harvard. (Original work, 77).

---. (1998) Historia naturalis (K. Mayhoff, Ed. , 1897-1908; B. Thayer, Ed., 1998) <http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/home*.html> (1998, August 31).

Plumb, C. (1990). What can technical writers learn from good conversation? Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 20 (2), 201-209.

Plung, D.L. (1982). The advantages of sentence outlining. Technical Communication, 29, 8-11.

Podis, J. M., & Podis, L.A. (1990). Identifying and teaching rhetorical plans for arrangement. College Composition and Communication, 41, 430-442.

Podis, L.A. (1980). Teaching arrangement: Defining a more practical approach. College Composition and Communication, 31, 197-204.

Porter, J. E. (1986). Intertextuality and the discourse community. Rhetoric Review, 5, 34-47.

Price, J. (1977). Video visions: A medium discovers itself. New York: New American Library.

---. (1992). How do writers really collaborate? IPCC 92 conference record (pp. 460-463). Santa Fe, NM: IEEE.

---. (1997a). Structuring complex interactive documents. Introduction to a special issue (same title) of the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, July, 69-77.

---. (1997b). Using complexity theory to understand what's happening to technical communication. IPCC 97 proceedings, October 22-25, 1997, Salt Lake City, Utah, 17-27 (pp. 17-28). Salt Lake City, UT: IEEE Professional Communication Society..

---. (1997c). How electronic outlining can help you create online materials. Conference proceedings, 15th annual international conference on computer documentation, October 19-22, 1997, Salt Lake City, Utah (pp. 211-221). Salt Lake City, UT: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Special Interest Group on Systems Documentation (SIGDOC).

---. (1997d). Electronic outlining as a tool for making writing visible. Computers and Composition, December, 409-427.

---. (1998). Complexity theory as a way of understanding our role in the World-Wide Web. STC 45th annual conference proceedings (pp. 207-209). Anaheim, CA: STC.

Price, J., & Korman, H. (1993). How to communicate technical information. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings.

Price, J. & Urban, L. (1984). The definitive word-processing book. New York: Penguin.



Ramus, P. (1543). Dialectiones partitiones. Paris. Portions of English translation in P. Miller (1939), The New England mind: The seventeenth century, Cambridge, MA: Harvard, quoted in Batschelet, M. W., (1988), Plain style and scientific style: The influence of the Puritan plain style sermon on early American science writers. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 18 (4), 287-295.

Rodrigues, D., & Rodrigues, R. (1986). Teaching writing with a word processor. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Rogers, R. L. (1986). Preparing course materials with an outline processor. Teaching of Psychology, 13, 154-155.

Rose, M. (1980). Rigid rules, inflexible plans, and the stifling of language: A cognitivist analysis of writer's block. College Composition and Communication, 31, 389-401.

Rosenfeld, L., & Morville, P. (1998). Information architecture for the World Wide Web. Sebastapol, CA: O'Reilly.

Rouse, R. H., & Rouse, M. A. (1989). Wax tablets. Language and Communication, 9 (2/3), 175-191.

Rubens, P. (Ed.). (1992). Science and technical writing: A manual of style. New York: Henry Holt.

Rubin, D. L. (1988). Introduction: Four dimensions of social construction in written communication. In B. A. Raforth & D. L. Rubin (Eds.). The social construction of written communication (pp. 1-33). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Rude, C. D. (1988). Format in instructional manuals: Applications of existing research. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 2, 63-77.

Ruskiewicz, J. (1988) Word and image: The next revolution. Computers and Composition, 5, 9-16.

Rymer, J. (1993). Collaboration and conversation in learning communities: The discipline and the classroom. In. N. R. Blyler & C. Thralls (Eds.) Professional communication: The social perspective (pp. 179-195). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Samuels, M. (1989). The technical writing process. New York: Oxford.

Sandman, P., Klompus, C, & Yarrison, B. (1985). Scientific and technical writing. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Santmyers, S. (1949). Practical report writing. Scranton, PA: International Textbook Company.

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1983). The development of evaluation, diagnostic, and remedial capabilities in children's composing. In M. Matlew (Ed.), The psychology of written language: A developmental approach (pp. 67-95). London: Wiley.

Schank, R. & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Schmidt, S. (1983). Creating the technical report. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Schneider, M.L. (1990). Collaborative learning: A concept in search of a definition. Issues in Writing, 3 (1), 26-39.

Schoeck, R. J. (1983). Lawyers and rhetoric in sixteenth-century England. In J. J. Muprhy (Ed.), Renaissance eloquence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Schriver, K. A. (1997). Dynamics of document design. New York: Wiley.

Schubert, L. (1948). A guide for oral communication. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Schwartz, H. (1985). Interactive writing: Composing with a word processor. New York: Holt.

Selber, S. A. (1995). Metaphorical perspectives on hypertext. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 38, 59-67.

Shelton, J. (1995). Handbook for technical writing. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.

Sherman, A. (1970). The research paper guide. West Haven, CT: Pendulum Press.

Sherman, T. (1955). Modern technical writing. New York: Prentice Hall.

---.(1966). Modern technical writing (Second Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shneiderman, B. (1983). Direct manipulation: A step beyond programming languages. IEEE Computer, 16, 57-69.

----. (1992). Designing the user interface: Strategies for effective human-computer interaction. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Sinfield, A. (1992). Faultlines. Berkeley, Los Angeles: Oxford UP.

Slatin, J. M. (1990). Reading hypertext: Order and coherence in a new medium. College English, 52, 870-83.

Smart, W., & Lang, D. (1943). Smart's handbook of effective writing. New York. Harper & Brothers.

Smith, K. L. (1990). Collaborative and interactive writing for increasing communication skills. Hispania, 73, pp. 77-87.

Smith, C. F. (1994). Hypertextual thinking. In C. L. Selfe & S. Hilligoss (Eds.), Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology (pp. 264-281). New York: Modern Language Association.

Smith, R. (1940). Learning to write in college. Boston: Little, Brown.

Society for Technical Communication, Information Design Special Interest Group. (1998). Design Matters. (Newsletter). <http://stc.org/pics/idsig/> (1998, August 26).

Sommers, N. (1980) Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers. College Composition and Communication, 31, 378-388.

Sommers, N., & McQuade, D. (1984). Student writers at work: The Bedford prizes. New York: St. Martin's.

Stallard, C. (1974). An analysis of the behavior of good student writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 8, 206-218.

Stein, V. (1990). Exploring the cognition of reading-to-write. In L. Flower, V. Stein, J. Ackerman, M. J. Kantz, K. McCormick, & W.C. Peck (Eds.), Reading-to-write: Exploring a cognitive and social process (pp. 119-143). New York: Oxford.

Stewart, J.A. (1989). How to manage educational computing initiatives-Lessons from the first five years of Project Athena at MIT. In E. Barrett (Ed.) The society of text: Hypertext, hypermedia, and the social construction of information, pp. 284-304.. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Stotsky, S. (1990). On planning and writing plans-Or beware of borrowed theories! College Composition and Communication, 41, 37-57.

Stratman, J. F. (1990). The emergence of legal composition as a field of inquiry: Evaluating the prospects. Review of Educational Research, 2, 153-235.

Streitz, N., Rizk, A., & Andre, J. (Eds.). (1990). Hypertext: Concepts, systems, applications. Proceedings of the European conference on hypertext, INRIA, Versailles, France, November, 1990. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sypherd, W., & Brown, S. (1933). The engineer's manual of English. New York: Scott.

Sypherd, W., Fountain, A., & Gibbens, V. (1957). Manual of technical writing: A revision and extension of The engineer's manual of English. Chicago: Scott, Foresman.


Taylor, B.M., & Beach, R.W. (1984). The effects of text structure instruction on middle-grade students' comprehension and production of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 19 (2), 134-136.

Thomas, B. (1991). The new historicism and other old-fashioned topics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Thomas, J.D. (1949). Composition for technical students. New York: Scribner's.

Tomlinson, B. (1988). Tuning, tying, and training texts: Metaphors for revision. Written Communication, 5 (1), 58-81.

Trzyna, T., & Batschelet, M. (1987). Writing for the technical professions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Tuman, M. C. (1992). Word perfect: Literacy in the computer age. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.

Tuttle, R., & Brown, C. (1956). Writing useful reports: Principles and applications. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.


Ulmer, G. (1989). Teletheory: Grammatology in the age of video. New York: Routledge.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, with the National School Boards Association. (1997). Technology for students with disabilities: A decision maker's resource guide. U.S. Department of Education: Washington, D.C. <http://www.empowermentzone.com/techstud.txt> (1998, August 24).

USGS (United States Geological Survey). (1957) Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey, Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: United States Geological Survey.


van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic.

Volosinov, V. N. (1973). Marxism and the philosophy of language (L. Matejka & I. R. Titunik, trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original: 1929).

Vygotsky, Lev. (1962). Thought and language. (E. Hanfmann, Ed., G. Vakar, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work, 1934).


Waern, Y. (1989). Cognitive aspects of computer-supported tasks. New York: Wiley.

Wagner, B. J. (1994). An easy outlining approach for producing solidly structured, audience-directed reports. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 8, 475-482.

Walvoord, B. E., Anderson, V.J., Breihan, J. R., McCarthy, L. P., Robison, S. M., & Sherman, A. K. (1995). Functions of outlining among college students in four disciplines. Research in the Teaching of English, 29, 390-421.

Ward, D. A. (1991). The "reader's outline": A tool for global revision. Journal of Teaching Writing, 10, 201-215.

Ward, R. (1968). Practical technical writing. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Warriner. J. (1950). English grammar and composition: Complete Course. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Warriner, J., Mersand, J., & Griffith, F., (1958). English grammar and composition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Weaver, R., with Beal, R. (1967). Rhetoric and composition. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Weidenborner, S., & Caruso, D. (1990). Writing research papers, A guide to the process. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Weisman, H. (1962). Basic technical writing. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Books.

Weiss, E. (1982). The writing system for engineers and scientists. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wellborn, G., Green, L., & Nall, K. (1961). Technical writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Whately, R. (1990). Elements of rhetoric. Excerpted in P. Bizzell & B. Herzberg, The rhetorical tradition (pp. 831-858). Boston, MA: Bedford Books, of St. Martin's Press. (Original work, 1828).

Wicker, C., & Albrecht, W. (1960). The American technical writer: A handbook of objective writing. New York: American Book.

Wilcox, R. (1977). Communication at work: Writing and speaking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Willinsky, J. (1994). Empire of words: The reign of the OED. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Wilson, T. (1990). The arte of rhetorique. Excerpts reprinted in P. Bizzell & B. Herzberg (Eds.), The rhetorical tradition (pp.584-621). Boston, MA: Bedford Books, of St. Martin's Press. (Original work, 1553).

Winer, D. (1988). Outliners and programming. <http://www.scripting.com/dwiner/outlinersProgramming.html> (1998, August 20).

Winograd, T., & Flores, F. (1986). Understanding computers and cognition: A new foundation for design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Witte, S.P. (1983). Topical structure and revision: An exploratory study. College Composition and Communication, 34, 313-341.

---. (1987). Pre-text and composing. College Composition and Communication, 38, 397-425.

--- .(1992). Context, text and intertext: Toward a constructivist semiotic of writing. Written Communication, 9, 237-308.

Wurman, R. S. (1996). Information architects. Zurich: Graphis Press.



Young, M. (1989). The technical writer's handbook: Writing with style and clarity. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books.

Young, R. L. (1991). A dialogue user interface architecture. In J. W. Sullivan & S. W. Tyler, (Eds.), Intelligent user interfaces (pp. 157-176). Reading, MA: ACM Press, Addison-Wesley.

Young, R., Becker, A., & Pike, K. (1970). Rhetoric: discovery and change. New York: Harcourt Brace.


Zuboff, S. (1988). In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power. New York: Basic.


Buy the book from Amazon:
Outlining Goes Electronic,
by Jonathan Price
Volume 9 in the series Contemporary Studies in Technical Communication, from the Association of Teachers of Technical Writing,
Ablex, 1999
177 pages
ISBN 1-56750-379-9


Home | Guidelines | Rants | Patterns | Poems | Services | Classes | Press | Blog |
Resources | About Us | Site Map

Web Writing that Works!
  1999, 2004 Jonathan and Lisa Price
The Communication Circle
Discuss at HotText@yahoogroups.com
Email us directly at ThePrices@ThePrices.com
Order Hot Text (the book) from Amazon